An important part of GM Design history is represented by the Corvair Monza GT. Developed under the leadership of GM Design chief Bill Mitchell, this stunning concept was the work of Larry Shinoda, who's accomplishment as designer of the Sting Ray Corvette are well documented.
Riding on a wheelbase 16-inches shorter than a standard Corvair, the Monza GT's rear-engine was rotated 180-degrees from its standard position to create a true mid-engine car. With doors that opened forward like a canopy from the base of the windshield to the 'B' pillars, and a rear-opening engine cover, the low 42-inch GT coupe established new benchmarks for contemporary design.
Powered by a turbocharged, 145 cubic-inch, horizontally-opposed, aluminum six-cylinder engine, the GT delivered 'go' that backed up its 'show.'
First presented to the public at the 1963 New York Auto Show, the Monza GT occupies a special place in concept car history.
Chevrolet's air-cooled, rear-engine Corvair reached production for 1960 as GM's answer to the growing popularity of small, inexpensive imports, including the similarly laid-out Volkswagen Beetle. Mitchell was excited by the design possibilities offered by the Corvair's component set. With no big lump of an engine or bulky radiator up front, it enabled the designer's dream of very low, sleek, aerodynamic front ends.
To explore the possibilities of Corvair-based sports cars, he created a gorgeous pair of concepts named for Italy's famed Monza racing circuit. The silver Monza GT coupe's unique features included rectangular concealed headlamps and a one-piece canopy that pivoted upward for access to its matching silver interior.
Developed in 1962, both slippery shapes reflected substantial wind-tunnel testing. Among other innovations, these concepts pioneered the tall, voluptuous fenders that made the 1968 Corvette such a stand-out design. And they offered the potential of a future expansion of the Corvair line to include a low-cost alternative to the Corvette.
'I wanted something more exotic,' Mitchell told historian David Crippen in 1985, 'so I built the one where the hatch came up....and it's still a beautiful car, but it was heavy. Then I built the open job. GM just couldn't see putting that out....but it went around to shows everywhere.'
magazine named it one of 'The 50 Worst Cars of All Time.' Ralph Nader highlighted its design flaws in his influential book Unsafe at Any Speed. Yet the Chevrolet Corvair, which faced more negative press during its lifespan than any other car of the era, continues to have a loyal following of true enthusiasts.
Different from any American cars before or since, the unique Corvair has become most notable for its flaws. The car had its merits as well, but the more agreeable facets of the Corvair have been largely disregarded by the public and held onto only by an adoring group of fans enamored with the vehicle.
A rear-engined car, the primary flaw of the Corvair sprang from Chevrolet's inexperience with the new drivetrain layout. The Corvair was designed to be a mass-produced compact car able to compete with the incoming wave of tidy foreign vehicles. For inspiration, Chevrolet looked to the king of the compact—Volkswagen.
With a name that translates literally to 'People's Car,' Volkswagen had nailed the formula for affordable and charming transportation with the evergreen Beetle. When the Corvair was introduced, it borrowed heavily from the Beetle. Like the VW, the Corvair used an air-cooled engine mounted at the rear, with a trunk located up front. The Corvair also used a swing-axle rear suspension similar to the Volkswagen's. While VW had many years to perfect its engine and suspension, Chevrolet jumped right in with the Corvair. With no real experience making such cars, Chevy's new compact was bound to have some serious teething issues.
When it debuted for the 1960 model year, the Corvair suffered from grave problems. Its rigid steering column was aimed just right to impale unlucky drivers when the cars were involved with collisions. The car's most notable fault, though, came from its suspension design. Though the light and underpowered Volkswagens could use a similar design without serious problems, the heavier and more powerful Corvairs developed dangerous handling characteristics due to the use of a swing-arm rear suspension.
Under hard cornering, the inside rear wheel of Corvairs had a tendency to tuck. When this happened, and it happened often, the cars became uncontrollable. With barely any surface area gripping the road at the back of the car, a tucked wheel could easily cause a spinout. Even worse, many cars would roll over when the suspension gave out in a turn.
Chevrolet recognized the problem and began working to remedy it as early as 1962. For 1964, a transverse spring was installed to compensate for camber changes under cornering. By 1965, with the introduction of the second generation Corvair, an entirely new suspension design had replaced the flawed swing-axle layout. Salvation came late, though. Also released for 1965 was Ralph Nader's book Unsafe at Any Speed that targeted the glaring problems of the early Corvairs. The improved models were hurt by the infamous reputation of their predecessors. Sales slowed to a trickle, and production was ended after the 1969 model year.
Despite the follies of the early cars, there was plenty to like about the Corvair. Its styling was crisp and clean with a sporting flair that couldn't be seen on other American compacts. The forward slanting nose with its four small headlights and absence of a grille looked distinctive and fresh. The car's lines were taut and athletic, a welcome step away from the American excess of just a few years prior.
Later Corvairs, with their improved rear suspensions, offered engaging driving dynamics. The improved handling made Corvairs fun cars in the corners. The air-cooled, aluminum flat sixes were versatile engines. Offered in 145ci and 164ci displacements, they produced anywhere from 80 to 180 horsepower. More affordable trim levels, like the 500 and 700, made due with less power while the sportier Corsa, Monza, and Spyder trims were all given more gusto. Four carburetors were offered on some models, and for the 1965 and 1966 model years there was even a turbocharged variant of the 164ci engine. It was this turbo engine that, when ordered in the Corsa, put out a hearty 180hp at 4,000rpm. The relatively light weight of the Corvair coupled with such power provided astounding acceleration. The ¼ mile could be achieved in the 13-second range.
Ushering in such innovations in an American car was a brave move for Chevrolet. The Corvair had dire flaws—problems that ultimately led to the car's end. It represented Chevy's willingness to take risks, though, and in doing so showed that the American car industry could step outside its bounds and create its own distinctive brand of transportation to take on a new class of cars from all over the world. With the support of a large group of admirers who continue to voice their praise over the cynics' criticism, the Corvair has become the car world's most successful failure.Sources:
Aube, Gary. Corvair Corsa Web.23 Jul 2009. http://www.corvaircorsa.com/.
GM: The First 75 Years of Transportation Products. Second. Detroit: Automobile Quarterly Publications, 1983. Print.By Evan Acuña
The Corvair came on the scene in 1959 and featured a flat-six engine mounted in mid-ship. Even with putting the engine in the middle of the vehicle, the weight distribution was not evenly distributed. The engine sat behind the rear axle and this actually caused handling problems. The vehicles main competition was the VW Bug and the Porsche 911. It was originally built to compete with the Bug, but with the flat-six engine, it was more in the Porsche 911 league. But with the poor handling, it was in an undesirable class of its own. The handling issues were addressed in 1965 when new suspensions with upper and lower control arms were added. But when comedian Eddie Kovacs was killed due to over-steer, public confidence and sales plummeted. Chevrolet tried to save the Corvairs by introducing media campaigns that focused on the new suspension. Race drivers were used to demonstrate the cars ability. However, it was not enough and Chevrolet finally ended production of the Corvair in 1969.
The front of the vehicle did not have a grill. This was because the engine was air-cooled, so a grill was not needed.
The car came with fifteen different color options on the outside and eight on the inside. The retractable room was foldable, and an automatic option available for an additional charge. In 1962, a turbocharged version was added to the line-up in attempt to boost sales and improve the image of the vehicle as a sports car. A top speed of 115 mph could be ascertained with the turbocharger with a zero-to-sixty time of about 10.8. In 1966, the vehicle received styling updates and was named the Corvair Corsa. Drum brakes were always used. The vehicle came in a variety of gearboxes such as a three-speed manual, four-speed manual or an optional two-speed automatic. The body was integral chassis with two-door steel body.
The name Corvair came about by breeding the Corvette and Bel Air together, two trademark names of Chevrolet.
By Daniel Vaughan | Jul 2009