All-New 2013 GS 450h Unveiled at Frankfurt Motor Show
• GS 450h Features Second Generation Lexus Hybrid Drive System
• Fuel Economy Improved by More Than 30 Percent
• New Atkinson Cycle V6 wîth Gas Engine
With a five vehicle hybrid line-up, Lexus reinforces its commitment to hybrid technology wîth the all-new 2013 GS 450h. When it was introduced for the 2007 model year, the GS 450h was the first hybrid-powered luxury sport sedan to enter the market. Today, the GS 450h is the world's first premium performance sedan to be equipped wîth a V6 Atkinson cycle gas engine and two-motor hybrid system, in a front engine rear-wheel drive vehicle.
The hybrid version of the 2013 GS 350 incorporates improvements to its hybrid powertrain and is equipped wîth a second generation Lexus Hybrid Drive system. GS 450h engineers have aimed for reductions in fuel consumption and emissions, while providing exhilarating performance.
With a total system power output of 338 hp, the GS 450h will accelerate effortlessly from 0-60 mph in 5.6 seconds. Conversely, fuel consumption is expected to be improved by more than 30 percent. The GS 450h is targeting certification as a Super-Últra Low Emissions Vehicle II (SÚLEV II). The new GS hybrid also features a Drive Mode selector. In addition to the Normal mode, the driver can customize the driving experience using Eco, Sport S, Sport S+ and EV modes.
'The all-new GS 450h will provide our customers wîth an exciting blend of performance and precision in a new hybrid package,' said Mark Templin, Lexus group vice president and general manager in the Ú.S. 'With its dynamic exterior styling, roomy interior and advanced technology features, the GS 450h further demonstrates Lexus' mastery of the luxury hybrid.'
| ||Vital Stats|
|Engine : 3.5 L., 6-cylinder|
Power: 338 hp
As wîth all Lexus hybrid vehicles, the new GS 450h is a full hybrid capable of operating in gas-only or electric-only modes, as well as a combination of both. Its Lexus Hybrid Drive system features an ultra-smooth running, Atkinson cycle 3.5-liter V6 engine mated to a compact, high-output, water-cooled permanent magnet electric motor. The two powerplants drive the rear wheels both independently and in tandem, as needed.
In addition to the gas engine and electric motor, the new GS 450h's hybrid drive system a generator; a high-performance nickel-metal hydride battery; a power split device which, via planetary reduction gears, combines and re-allocates power from the engine, electric motor and generator according to operational requirements; and a compact power control unit to govern the high speed interaction of the system components.
Adapted specifically for the hybrid powertrain and a first for premium performance sedans, the 3.5-liter V6, DOHC engine benefits from several technical improvements including the adoption of the Atkinson Cycle engine design to optimize the fuel-efficient benefits of Lexus Hybrid Drive.
Compression is delayed in an Atkinson Cycle engine, because the intake valves close late. This creates a high expansion ratio for less compression, reducing intake and exhaust energy losses and converting combustion energy to engine power more effectively.
A high compression ratio of 13:1; a new, mid-port intake tumble generator; and the adoption of the latest evolution of Lexus' four-stroke, direct injection technology, D-4S, help the GS 450h achieve better fuel consumption.
With one injector installed in the combustion chamber and a second mounted in the intake port, D-4S combines the strengths of both direct and port injection, realizing optimum engine efficiency throughout the power band and improving torque across the rev range, while minimizing fuel consumption and emissions.
The D-4S system features new slit-type injector nozzles wîth a modified port shape, a higher fuel pressure for more efficient combustion, and idle port injection for improved NHV characteristics.
Engine noise, vibration and friction have been lowered through the adoption of lightweight chain technology.
The cooling performance of the hybrid system's Power Control Únit (PCÚ) helps reduce fuel consumption and has been improved through the adoption of dual cooling paths and a single-piece, integrated AC/DC converter.
System control has been enhanced. The PCÚ boosts motor drive voltage to a maximum 650V in Sport mode and limits it to a maximum of 500V in Eco mode under normal driving conditions where maximum output is not required. The motor is driven at lower voltage to provide a more environmentally–advanced driving performance to help enhance fuel efficiency.
The electric motor features lighter mounts and reduced friction. The system's regenerative braking operation range has been expanded, contributing to further improvements in fuel efficiency. In addition, the battery layout has been redesigned. A new stacked configuration maximizing luggage space allows the 2013 GS 450h to have more cargo area than the previous generation gas model.Chassis/Body/Suspension/Tires/Brakes
All second-generation GS hybrid models have a new platform that is designed to be more rigid compared to the previous models. Engineers conducted extensive platform testing, ultimately increasing the number of spot welds and adding laser welds in very specific locations. The track works in combination wîth a revised suspension design to assure a more solid stance and superior cornering performance.
The new suspension system is designed to help guide the 2013 GS through corners wîth precision. In the front, upper and lower control arms are made from aluminum and employ larger bushings. The rear subframe has been completely redesigned to accommodate an all-new multi-link rear suspension, using improved suspension geometry that retains tire cornering force and enhances rear control. With the stiffer platform and lighter components, the shocks can use lighter-viscosity oil, so they move easily and respond to small inputs more quickly.
The use of front and rear aluminum control arms helps reduce unsprung weight and results in significant improvements in agility, roll damping, ride comfort, body control and §teering precision. Overall, the suspension is lighter and stronger, allowing it to react to driver input readily, and ride quietly without harshness. Ventilated disc brakes featuring four-piston aluminum front calipers includes the latest electronic enhancements to help provide braking balance and control.
The GS 450h also offers the Lexus Dynamic Handling system, an integrated four-wheel §teering system. The leading edge platform technology of the Lexus Dynamic Handling system offers Lexus' first integration of Adaptive Variable Suspension (AVS); Dynamic Rear Steering (DRS); Variable Gear Ratio Steering (VGRS); and the latest generation of Lexus' unique Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) system to help coordinate every aspect of front and rear wheel control and provide agile, sharp and confident driving behavior wîth a more direct response to the driver's actions.
The Lexus Dynamic Handling system integrates the control of the Electric Power Steering (EPS), VGRS and newly developed DRS. Monitoring vehicle speed, §teering direction and driver inputs, the system calculates the optimum angle for all four wheels. Úsing VGRS to the front and DRS to the rear, the system can independently control both front and rear wheel §teering angles to help improve turn-in response, rear grip, vehicle stability and overall agility when cornering.
The DRS system monitors vehicle speed and yaw rate, §teering angle and speed, and lateral G to calculate the required rear wheel §teering input, to a maximum of 1.5 degrees. At speeds below 50 mph the front and rear wheels turn in opposite directions. At speeds over 50 mph, front and rear wheels turn in the same direction.
Further coordinating DRS wîth VGRS, AVS and VDIM, the Lexus Dynamic Handling system will automatically customize the adaptive suspension tuning and active safety systems to suit road conditions, vehicle speed and driving style, giving customers confidence to experience the new GS' exceptional driving performance.
The standard 17-inch alloy wheels are paired wîth 225/50R17 tires while the optional 18-inch alloy wheels are equipped wîth 235/45R18 tires. The GS 450h's Electronically Controlled Braking (ECB) system characteristics have been modified to provide greater responsiveness from the first touch of the pedal.Safety/Security Features
Like the GS 350, the GS 450h will be standard equipped wîth 10 airbags, including a knee airbag for both driver and front passenger. Rear seat occupants have seat-mounted side airbags, and all four outboard occupants are equipped wîth side curtain airbags. Also standard are new Whiplash Injury Lessening (WIL) front seats that reduce the space between the occupant's head and headrest, to help limit excessive head movement, and help decrease the severity of whiplash-type injuries in certain types of collisions. Standard seatbelts wîth pretensioners wîth force limiters used for front and outboard rear seats further assist occupant protection.
Available options to help further enhance safety include a pre-collision system, which uses the dynamic radar cruise control system to provide early warning of upcoming objects that might result in a collision. The system also uses a Lexus first infrared camera to monitor the driver's eyes to check on driver status. In the event that the driver does not appear to be lòòking forward when a collision appears imminent, the system will initiate the warning at an earlier threshold. If the driver still does not respond and make the appropriate maneuver, the system will initiate light braking intervention up to two seconds prior to impact, designed to help to lessen the severity of the collision.
Other available safety systems include a Night Vision System that enhances driver visibility at night; Heads Úp Display (HÚD); a Blind Spot Monitor that helps detect vehicles in rear/side blind spots; and Lane Keep Assist (LKA) wîth Lane Departure Warning (LDW). LKA provides a small amount of active §teering torque to help maintain course, while the LDW feature alerts the driver if the system detects that the vehicle is beginning to drift out of the lane. Exterior Design
The 2013 GS expresses a new generation of Lexus' design philosophy wîth its precisely sculpted exterior and will lead the rest of the lineup in an entirely new direction. When designers shaped the GS they visualized the flow of air around it and, like the LFA supercar, maximized aerodynamic efficiency.
Exclusive to the hybrid model is a unique three-lamp design that aligns the turn signal and Lexus-first high and low beam LED lamps in a single horizontal row. The improved illumination and beam range provided by LED lamps offers better visibility even under low beam driving conditions. In addition, the rear bumper of the GS 450h covers the exhaust pipe apertures. The GS 450h can also be distinguished by Lexus' signature blue hybrid badging.
The GS fuses distinctive style wîth engineering functionality. Fins incorporated into the side of the tail lamps and the design of the trunk area all help direct air over and past the car. The rear bumper underbody area was designed for reduced wind resistance to help keep the car steady. Finally, air inlets located on the outer edges of the lower grille serve as cooling ducts.
The signature spindle grille wîth its trapezoidal contours evolved from current Lexus styling and fully integrates into the aggressive front bumper allowing for efficient airflow. This distinctive Lexus design feature combined wîth the deep-set, high-tech headlamps and L-shaped LED daytime running lamps further express the vehicle's confident and dynamic character.
From the side, the GS projects the image of a spacious sport sedan wîth a road-hugging wider stance. The tapered lower rocker panel and the short front overhang give the vehicle a sense of motion. Width-enhancing front and rear wheel arches adds an athletic stance enhancing the vehicle's dynamic presence.
The rear bumper features centered aero fins to help control underbody airflow. Combined wîth the L-shaped LED tail lamps, a Lexus design cue, these rear bumper features lend a high-performance appearance. Overall, the new GS sheet metal represents a significant extension of the Lexus L-finesse philosophy that is the core of all Lexus product design.
The GS line-up will feature three colors that are new to the Lexus color palette: Riviera Red, Meteor Blue Mica and Liquid Platinum. Vehicles in Riviera Red will benefit from glass flakes incorporated into the coating that adds a high level of brilliance to the paint. Lexus engineers developed a new advanced coating process for Liquid Platinum exteriors. The GS will be the first Lexus to adopt this new coating technology. Vehicles wîth the Liquid Platinum exterior will appear more radiant as an additional metallic texture gives both strong shading and defined, sharp highlights. This metallic effect makes subtle and defined bodylines more noticeable and the surface appear finely polished.Interior Design
The GS 450h will share the same luxurious and technological amenities as its gas counterpart, including next generation Remote Touch; analog clock wîth LED indicators, carved from an ingot; and a new energy-saving auto climate control system called S-Flow that focuses airflow only to the front area where passengers are actually seated. A few notable differences include a bamboo-finished §teering wheel which reinforces the sustainability of the GS 450h, and the hybrid monitor.
'There is no other mid-luxury hybrid like the new GS 450h,' said Lexus'Templin. 'The handling, acceleration, and design of this Lexus hybrid are impeccable. We can't wait for customers to drive one.'Source - Lexus
Designed to fill the gap between the ES and LS, the Lexus GS was introduced by Toyota's luxury department, Lexus, in October of 1991. Also called the Toyota Aristo, the GS was a series of mid-size luxury sports sedans that were styled by the famous Italdesigns Giurgiaro firm. Based on the platform and running gear of the Toyota Crown, the original GS was first introduced in Japan in 1991, and two years later in the U.S., Europe and varied markets in Asia.
Made available with two inline-6 powered version for the Japanese market, the Aristo was introduced with the 3.0Q and the 3.0V. While the 3.0Q Aristo had a 2JZ-GE engine capable of producing 226 hp, the 3.0V was equipped with a 24-valve twinturbo 2JZ-GTe engine that produced 276 hp.
On February 22, 1993, production of the Lexus GS 300 was begun at the Tahara, Japan assembly plant. A great example for the time of the latest advancement of Tahara production technology, only 8 spot welds were performed by hand, while the other nearly 4,200 welds were performed by robots.
Wanting to produce a vehicle capable of competing with the BMW 5-Series and the Mercedes-Benz E-Class, Lexus introduced the GS as the new marketing sports sedan. To further complement the rest of the Lexus lineup, the exterior was styled by Italdesign Giugiaro in a way that blended the elements of both the original LS and the SC in a rounder, aerodynamic shape.
The inside of the Lexus GS 300 featured leather seating, walnut wood trim on the center console, and the availability of a Nakamichi premium stereo system. Other available options included (TRAC) traction control, a moonroof, and a remote 12-CD auto changer. The four-speed automatic transmission was replaced in 1996 with a five-speed automatic.
The main purpose of the GS had been to take the price position of the original LS 400 flagship which had steadily moved upmarket since its introduction in 1989. In comparison to power and available amenities, the first rear-wheel drive sports sedan by Lexus, the GS, exceeded the LS by a far range. However, GS 300 sales were only considered modest, with 1993 being the most productive year at 19,164 units sold. As the Japanese yen rose in value against the dollar in later years, sales dropped as it made the GS more expensive than its rivals. Stiff competition was brought on by more powerful V8 sport sedans as well which further dropped sales. Initially the GS 300 carried the U.S. base price of $37,930, and by 1997 had risen to $46,195.
In 1998 the second generation of Lexus GS was introduced for the first time outside of
Japan, and utilized a new platform that added a V8 version. 'Something Wicked This Way Comes' was the tagline Lexus used for the arrival for this second generation. This new GS was codenamed JZS160 for models that carried the 2JZ-GE engine, and JZS161 for models with the 2JZ-GTE twin-turbo engines. A bump in torque was also made possible by VVT-I now becoming standard. While no four-wheel drive models were offered, the new GS's styling was produced in-house and now featured quadruple headlights similar to the Lexus SC coupe. For the first time an upgraded stereo system along with elecroluminiscent Lexus Opitron gauges were offered as well. Once again offered, the GS 300 now featured a slightly revised version of the previous generation's 3.0 L inline-6 which now produced 225 hp and 225 ft·lbf of torque.
The second generation GS sedan was much more of a success in comparison to the generation prior. Sales mounted to a total of 30,622 vehicles sold in the first year alone. By 2000 sales remained quite steady at around 28000 vehicles. Encouraged by its success, Lexus kept the GS sedan in its vehicle lineup for over eight years. The GS 300 was kept at a U.S. base price of approximately $38,000 and $47,000 for the GS 400.
2001 was the only year with any significant changes for the second generation Lexus GS. The grill was revised slightly, and new subtly tinted headlights were added to the front end. The trunk area also received new clear tail lights with turn signal indicators. While optional on the I6, Xenon high-intensity discharge headlights were made standard on the V8. The GS 300 featured more gleaming wood trim as well as steering wheel shift buttons. Renamed the GS 430 in 2001, the V8 engine received a 0.3 liter bump in displacement. The torque was also increased to 325 ft·lbf, though peak horsepower remained unchanged.
Named Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1998, the GS also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list from 1998 through 2000.
Using the same twin-turbo engine as found on the Toyota Supra Mk IV, the GS introduced a new, third model in 2002. The V8-powered 4.0Zi-Four joined the Aristo lineup in this year. This newest model came with a 250 hp engine, along with standard four-wheel drive. This was the same V8 that was used in both the first generation Lexus LS and the Toyota Crown Majesta. Both the GS and Aristo models were equipped with an independent, double-wishbone suspension setup.
First introduced as a 2006 model at the 2005 North American International Auto Show, production began on the third generation GS on January 24, 2005. The GS model lineup included the GS 300 which had a 3.0 L V6 3 GR-FSE engine, and the GS 430 with the same 4.3 L V8 that was used in the previous model. Excluding Singapore, the GS 300 featured a direct-injection engine for all markets except Continental Asia.
The first Lexus sedan to offer an all-wheel drive configuration, the GS 300 featured an all-wheel drive option. The Toyota Mark X and the Zero Toyota Crown also featured the 3.0 L engine. In 2006 the current third version of the GS came in V6, V8 and hybrid variations.
The GS was sold as the Toyota Aristo in Japan until 2005 when the Lexus marque was introduced. Seeking to align all world markets, including Japan, using Lexus as their luxury brand worldwide, Toyota chose not to release the equivalent Aristo. The Toyota Aristo was discontinued following the introduction of the third generation of the Lexus GS. The Aristo and the GS essentially differed in both their transmission and engine combinations and equipment packages, though other than that they were virtually identical.
Showcased as Lexus's new L-finesse design philosophy, the third generation GS featured more muscular styling, new swooping lines and a fastback profile. This third generation GS indicated the future direction of the Lexus lineup. First previewed on the earlier Lexus LF-S concept, the slingshot cabin was featured on the GS. Also revolutionary, the GS sedans were the first to feature the most updated generation of Lexus' SmartAccess keyless system. This added a push-button start for the first time.
A driver-side hidden panel for more infrequently used controls, other unique features included a standard touchscreen display in the center console, Bluetooth technology, and LED lighting in the cabin. Optional features include a Mark Levinson premium sound system. Each model had an electrochromic instrument cluster which adjusts for the amount of reflected sunlight, a unique feature for the Lexus GS series only.
For the 2007 model year, the GS 350, using the 3.5 L 2GR-FSE engine replaced the GS 300. The 2007 GS 430 horsepower rating was changed to 290 (with 319 ft·lbf. of torque), due to a change in SAE testing procedures. The V6-powered GS 350 was rated at 303 hp (with 274 ft·lbf. of torque). Both vehicles were reported at 0-60 times of 5.7 seconds by Lexus. For the 2008 model year, a 4.6 L GS 460 (URS191) replaced the GS 430. The 460 was equipped with a brand new 4.6 L 1UR-FE engine that generated 342 hp (with 339 ft·lbf. of torque). An 8-speed automatic transmission was also added to the GS 460. The 460 had a reported time of 0-60 seconds in 5.4 seconds according to lexus.
At the same time as the introduction of the GS 460, the GS lineup received an exterior overhaul that included a new and improved forward bumper and headlights, new wheel options and exterior colors, and turn signals now added to the side mirrors. The GS also received revised instrument cluster gauges and different trim pieces on the inside of the vehicle. For improved handling, the V8-powered GS 460 offers the Active Stablizer Suspension System, along with the hybrid GS 450h and previous GS 430 models.
The GS 350 costs approximately $44,150 while the GS 460 retails at $52,620.
Introduced at the 2005 New York International Auto Show, the hybrid Lexus GS 450h joined the Gs line for the 2007 model year. Producing over 330 hp, the 450h became the first mass-production rear-wheel drive luxury hybrid vehicle. With a naturally-aspirated 3.5 L 2GR-FSE V6 engine mated to an electric motor and a continuously variable transmission, the 450h's powertrain makes use of the Lexus Hybrid Drive system of integrating electric and gasoline engine motors.
With an MSRP (that includes delivery) of $55,595, the GS 450h comes with a Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle emissions rating. Raising the price by several thousands of dollars, several markets only allow the 450h to be purchased with at least one option package.
The battery is rear mounted, which consumes a significant amount of trunk space. Receiving the Driver Monitoring System in certain markets, the GS 450h is among the first of Lexus vehicles to achieve this. Featuring an infrared steering wheel mounted camera, this safety system monitors driver attentiveness and sounds an alarm if danger ahead is detected and the driver is not paying attention.
Weighing 4134 lbs, the GS 450h is capable of producing 339 hp due to the combined hybrid powertrain, which allows the GS to accelerate to 60 mph in 5.2 seconds, compared the GS 460's rated 5.4 seconds.
At a price of $65,000, a total of 75 ‘Neiman Marcus Edition' GS 450h sedans were featured as the annual holiday catalog vehicle. On October 19 2005, all 75 vehicles were sold in less than three hours and were delivered in April of 2006. In Japan, the GS 450h went on sale on March 16 2006.
For 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005, J.D. Power and Associates named the GS series the best midsize luxury vehicle in initial quality. For 2005, AAA named the third generation GS 300 the best car in its class. In 2005, Consumer Reports awarded the Lexus GS as the highest ranked vehicle in predicted reliability in the luxury car class.By Jessica Donaldson