1963 Ferrari 250 GTO
he Ferrari 250 GTO was produced from 1962 through 1964 with 36 examples created during that time. It is a car of beauty, performance, and mystery. Much is known about the car, but much is still in question. It is one of the most memorable and sought after vehicles with many still put through their paces in modern times in historic competition.
The design was created by either Bizzarrini or Scaglietti or possibly input from several sources. Gestione Sportiva's Giotto Bizzarrini was in charge of the Comp/62 program when the prototype was brought to the track for testing. Gestione Sportiva had been tasked with creating a new performance version of the 250 GT for the 1962 season in order to comply with new FIA regulations to run the World Championship for GT cars, rather than sportscars. The project began with a 250 GT chassis SWB chassis that measured 2600 mm and shortened down to 2400 mm. The 2600mm wheelbase had been available as either an aluminum-bodied competition car or a 'Lusso' road-going version with a steel body. The 'Lusso' was created to comply with FIA homologation regulations that required a minimum number of cars to be created. The 250 GT SWB was used in competition during the 1960 and 1961 season scoring many important victories and providing the prancing horse marque with many podium finishes. It achieved victories in the Tour de France, and class victories at LeMans, along with many other GT Class victories.
In 1961 the Comp/61 version was introduced. It was a development of the prior competition 250 GT versions but with a more powerful engine, slightly modified body, and a strong and lighter chassis. Its only Achilles heel was its poor aerodynamics at high speeds.
The Comp/62 program began almost at the start of 1961. Ferrari raced a 'Sperimentale' in the 1961 LeMans race which featured a 250 TR engine stuffed into a 250 GT SWB chassis and wearing a body designed by Pininfarina in the SuperAmerica style. The car showed real potential but would end the race prematurely.
The front design of the Comp/62 prototype test car would make it to production mostly unchanged. The rear of the car was similar to the early 1960s 250 GT. The overall shape of the car was continually developed until perfected. Upon competition, it was sent to Scaglietti who finished the design and prepared it for production. In February of 1962, the car was shown to the public even though further modifications would still be made to the design. During high-speed testing, the rear end aerodynamics were still unstable. To rectify the problem, a small fin-shaped tail called a 'Kamm' was attached to the rear. This tail had first been seen on a V6 prototype car driven by Richie Ginther during the following season. The first 18 cars constructed had a separate bolt-on tail while the remaining cars had the design built directly into the body.
The Ferrari 250 GT series had done well for Ferrari, both in racing and in sales. Ferrari was able to use it in competition for several seasons as they had already been approved for racing and homologation requirements were satisfied. With the introduction of the Comp/62, may felt the car was not a derivation of the 250 GT, but had more similarities with a 'Testa Rossa' with the addition of a roof, thus making it a completely new car. Official paperwork referred to the cars as 250 GT Comp/62, but it is commonly referred to as a 250 GTO, with the 'O' representing 'Omologato' which is Italian for homologation. Ultimately, it was the 250 GTO name, which had first appeared in English publications, that would stick with the car. The US automobile company, Pontiac, would later use the 'GTO' name on their muscle car vehicles. Ferrari later used the 'GTO' name on future series of their vehicles.
The Ferrari 250 GTO enjoyed continual success in racing, even though the development had been hindered by the 1961 walk-out by many influential and important individuals at Bizzarrini. When the 250 GTO made its racing debut at Sebring, the second round of the championship, it easily won the GT-class. It had been driven by Phil Hill and Olivier Gendebien, both very capable, experienced, and accomplished drivers. As the season progressed, the 250 GTO continued to rack-up class victories including a top three in class at LeMans. Ferrari easily won the season having earned 45 points.
The following season the GTO continued its successes even with an influx of competition from the AC Cobras with powerful Ford engines.
There was 33 factory-built GTOs during 1962 and 1963 with 28 having the Comp/62 body. One wore a GTO LMB body. Three more were created in 1964 and four of the prior models were later re-bodied with a 1964 design. Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) created a special one-off design that they entered in the 1963 24 Hours of LeMans and commonly referred to as a 250 GTO LMB. Its design was similar to the 330 LMB GT/Prototype race cars.
The 1964 cars were a development of the 250 P which had won LeMans in 1963. The engine was placed mid-ship and most, if not all, of its mechanical components, were completely new. This meant they were not homologated for racing under FIA regulations. To solve this problem, Ferrari quickly had three new GTOs created and fitted with bodies similar to the 250 LM. The cars would earn Ferrari another Championship for the third year in a row, though it was a tough battle between the competitive AC Cobra's and the Daytona variant.
As the competition continued to grow, Ferrari created a new racing version of the newly introduced 275 GTB. What had worked in the passed for Ferrari, was not to work again, as the FIA refused homologation for the racing version as they viewed it too different from the road version. So Ferrari withdrew from GT Competition and focused on Formula 1.By Daniel Vaughan | Feb 2008
roduction of the 250 Series began in 1954 and continued on through the early part of the 1960's. There were numerous variations of the 250 and would ultimately become Ferrari's most successful line of vehicles to date. The 250 is also recognized as the first Ferrari to ever receive disc brakes. This did not take place until the end of the 1950's. Also, the 250 was the first four-seater.
Ferrari's were custom built cars. They were not mass-produced. Ferrari provided the engine and chassis while Italian coach builders provided the body. This meant the specifications varied. Engines also varied in horsepower rating, torque, and displacement. This was no different for the 250 GT which saw many different variations in body style and body types.
Ferrari built the road-going Ferrari's to fuel his passion for racing. Many of the vehicles he built for the road had a competition model. That is, a modified version of the road-going model. An example of this was the 1959 short-wheel base (SWB) Berlinetta (Berlinetta which means coupe) and given an aluminum body. It was debuted in October 1959 at the Paris Salon. GT cars were road-legal vehicles that could also be taken to the track and compete without the need for modifications. Although this was their purpose, Ferrari realized that many customers would not race their vehicle, but rather wanted the power and performance that sports cars offered. To comply, Ferrari built these cars to be powerful and luxurious. The vehicles could still be run on the track, mostly on requiring the adoption of stickers and complying with any safety requirements.
The 250 road-going vehicles mostly shared two wheelbase sizes, a 2400 mm and 2600 mm. The 2400 wheelbase were referred to as the SWB (Short wheel base) while the other was the LWB (long wheel base).
The base engine was a Colombo 60-degree, single-over-head cam, 'vee' type 12-cylinder, with aluminum alloy block and heads, and cast-iron cylinder liners. The displacement was 180 cubic inch (2953 cc). Horsepower production was around 220-260. The front suspension was independent with double wishbones and coil springs. The rear suspension was a live axle.
The first 250 introduced was the 250S
and available in either berlinetta or spider configuration. Introduced in 1952, they were powered by a 3-liter Colombo engine producing about 230 horsepower.
At the 1953 Paris Motor Show, Ferrari introduced the 250 Europa and Export
. These were the only models in the series that were powered by a Lampredi v-12 engine also seen in Formula 1. The 250 Export had a 2400 MM wheelbase, similar tot he 250 MM. The 250 Europa had a larger, 2800 mm wheelbase which allowed more interior room. During their short production lifespan, only 18 examples were produced. Pininfarina and Vignale were tasked with creating the coachwork.
In 1954 four specialty built 250 Monza
were built for racing. They shared many similarities with the 750 Monza's, but were equipped with the 3-liter Colombo engine.
At the 1957 Geneva auto show, Ferrari displayed their 250 GT Cabriolet
. Coachwork was courtesy of Pininfarina; the wheelbase was 2600 mm in size. In 1959 the second in the 250 GT Cabriolet series production began after only 36 examples being produced.
From 1957 through 1959 Ferrari produced the 250 GT Berlinetta 'Tour de France'
(TdF). The name had been given for the 10-day automobile race. Originally the engine produced 240 horsepower but was later modified to 260 horsepower. Carrozzeria Scaglietti was responsible for creating the bodies based on Pinin Farina's design.
Scaglietti was responsible for constructing the 1957 250 GT California Spyder
. These sat atop a long, 2600 mm chassis and aluminum was used throughout the body in efforts to reduce the overall weight. In total, around 45 examples were created before they were replaced by the SWB version in 1960.
There were 250 examples of the 250 GT Berlinetta SWB
produced. Production began in 1959 and used the shortened, sportier wheelbase. Giotto Bizzarrini, Carlo Chiti, and Mauro Forghieri were responsible for the development. Some were built for racing while others were meant for daily transportation. Horsepower ranged from 240 to 280. Steel or aluminum bodies were used. The steel bodies were suited for the road-going vehicles, also known as Lusso. The racing trim vehicles were powerful and had low weight. They were vary competitive and are regarded as the most important GT racers of its time. In 1961 the SWB Berlinetta captured the GT class of the Constructor's Championship.
In 1960 a Scaglietti 250 GT Spyder California SWB was shown at the Geneva Motor Show. Built as a replacement for the LWB and based on the 250 GT SWB, around 55 examples were produced.
The Ferrari 250TR
was produced from 1957 through 1958 during which only 19 examples were created. The 'pontoon' fender body was designed by Scaglietti and the power was supplied through a Colombo 12-cylinder engine mounted at a sixty-degree angle and outfitted with six Weber 38 DCN carburetors. Power was sent to the rear wheels via a four-speed manual gearbox. With 300 horsepower, the 800 kg vehicle was able to achieve a 168 mph top speed. From 1958 through 1961, the 250 TR was entered in 19 championship races where they emerged victorious ten times.
The 250 in 250 TR represented the unitary displacement while the TR was an acronym meaning Testa Rossa. Testa Rossa translates to 'red head' which referred to the color of the engine's cylinder head.
The 250 TR series was built to capture the world championship which was experience questionable times. During the 1955 24 Hours of Lemans a fatal accident occurred and the Commissione Sportiva Internazionale (CSI) began investigating ways to make the sport safer for the drivers and the spectators. Their efforts were escalated in 1967 when another fatal accident occurred at the 1957 Mille Miglia. The committee decided upon a displacement limit but they were in disagreement on the size; the proposed figures ranged from 3 to around 3.5 liters.
1958 was the introductory year for the new regulations, which had been announced during the later part of 1957. Ferrari had been building, testing, and racing the 250 GT which had performed well during the 1957 Mille Miglia. The Colombo V12 260 horsepower engine received a larger bore, camshaft, and other improvements resulting in a 3.1 liter displacement and 320 horsepower. Testing continued throughout the 1957 season in both body configuration and mechanical components.
Ferrari had anticipated the new engine size regulations and thus had been sufficiently prepared to capture the world championship. Due to the potential of negative publicity caused by the fatal accidents, other manufacturers, such as Aston Martin, Lotus, Cooper and Jaguar, were hesitant to continue racing. Ferrari believed their closest competitor would be the powerful and technologically advanced Maserati 450 S which featured a quad-cam eight-cylinder engine.
Ferrari quickly began capturing victories during the 1958 season. The 250 TR was a solid vehicle thanks to the preparation and testing. The steel tubular ladder frame was of traditional Ferrari construction; a DeDion rear axle was used on the works racers. Customer cars were outfitted with a live axle. Drum brakes were placed on all four corners of the car. The engine had been modified to comply with regulations and to fit in the engine bay. In reality, the vehicle was an outdated car having only the benefit of proper planning and proven technology. Most cars featured disc brakes which provided superior stopping power. The Colombo engine dated back to the beginning of Ferrari and was antiquated in comparison to the modern power-plants.
Nearing the close of the 1958 season, the competition began to rise. Aston Martin had a lethal combination, a 3 liter DBR1 racer and Stirling Moss as the driver. Even though the Aston Martins did score a victory at Nurburgring 1000 KM, Ferrari was able to capture the World Championship. The legendary Phil Hill and Olivier Gendebien easily capture a third victory for Ferrari at the grueling 24 Hours of Lemans. The 250 TR works cars were referred to as TR58, to distinguish them from the customer TRs.
For the 1959 season, the vehicles received slight modifications which made the vehicle lighter and more powerful. The big news was the use of Dunlop disc brakes. The engine received coil valve springs and the horsepower increased slightly to 306. A Colotti designed five speed gearbox replaced the four-speed unit. Pininfarina was tasked with designing a new body and the construction was handled by Fantuzzi. As a result of the improvements, the name was changed to TR59. At their inaugural race, the TR59 finished first and second. This streak did not last and at the end of the season, it was Aston Martin who emerged as the world champion. The TR59 was plagued with reliability issues mostly due to the gearbox. The vehicles were forced to retire early from races, including Le Mans.
For the 1960 season, the TR was modified slightly to comply with new regulations and to rectify the transmission issues. These vehicles are commonly referred to as the TR59/60. Aston Martin had withdrawn from the championship which left no factory opposition for Ferrari. Porsche and Maserati provided competition, especially at Targa Florio and the Nurburgring 1000 km where they scored victories. At Le Mans, Ferrari finished first and second and captured the word championship, beating Porsche by only four points.
For the 1961 season, Ferrari introduced the mid-engined 246 SP. The TRI61 was given a new spaceframe chassis and was able to capture victories at Sebring 12 Hours and Le Mans. With victories between the 246 SP and the TRI61, Ferrari once again captured the world championship.
The CSI implemented stricter rules for the 1962 season which meant the TR was unable to score points for the factory. It was still allowed to race for the overall victory.By Daniel Vaughan | Feb 2007
Chassis Num: 4293 GT
In the 250 GTO, Ferrari produced the quintessential sports racing car of the post war era. Derived from the successful 250GT SWB Berlinetta, the GTO marked the culmination of the world-beating 250 Series.....[continue reading]
Chassis Num: 4153GT
Driven by Pierre Dumay and Leon Dernier, this car placed fourth overall and second in class at Lemans in 1963. Dumay then sold the car (chassis number 4153GT) to Ecurie Francorchamps. In 1964 it won the Tour de France with Lucien Bianchi and Georges ....[continue reading]
Chassis Num: 4219GT
Pedro Rodriguez drove this GTO (chassis number 4219GT) to first place at the 3 Hour Daytona Continental race in 1963, just 12 days after Mamie Reynolds, its first owner, took delivery. It then took fourth in class at Sebring driven by John Cannon and....[continue reading]
Chassis Num: 4757GT
This 250 GTO, engine number 4757GT, was originally purchased on June 5th of 1963 to Scuderia Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia. It was received just in time to run at Le Mans. The drivers at Le Mans were Fernand Tavano and Carlo Abate and the car was....[continue reading]
Chassis Num: 4561SA
Unlike most of its peers, this GTO has a recent racing history that is of great interest. This 4-liter 250/330 GTO with its modified Superamerica chassis (4561SA) raced in mostly minor races until it was purchased by its present owner in 1999. Since ....[continue reading]
Chassis Num: 4713GT
Chassis number 4713GT was delivered to Luigi Chinnetti on June 5th of 1963. It was delivered in time to carry the NART (North American Racing Team) banner at LeMans in 1963.....[continue reading]
Chassis #: 4293 GT
Chassis #: 4153GT
Chassis #: 4219GT
Chassis #: 4757GT
Chassis #: 4561SA
Chassis #: 4713GT