1970 Baldwin-Motion Corvette Maco Shark
Although Joel 'Mr. Motion' Rosen may be most recognized for his over-the-top Camaro's, he certainly was not limited in his builds. Fact is, he also had a hand in several Cobra's, a Buick GSX, numerous Chevelles and of course, many notable Corvettes. In 1967, the Motion name gained some serious drag strip notoriety with a Corvette dubbed 'Ko-Motion.' One of the first cars that Rosen tuned was a 1957 Corvette. Numerous Corvettes would receive the Motion touch.
And so, Mr. Motion was intrigued by the Chevrolet Mako Shark concept car, and decided to build his own version, offering kits and turn-key versions. This car is a rare example of a Rosen-built Maco Shark, one of the highest priced Motion vehicles ever built.
The original owner brought Mr. Motion a shiny air conditioned 1970 Corvette with one goal in mind; to win the gold on the show circuit. Withe price being no object, Rosen would go a step beyond with this creation. A beautiful custom diamond-tufted interior, one-off bubble taillights, a one piece flip front end, a tapered and louvered backlight, LeMans style gas cap and a paint job that simply must be seen are among the features.
When all was said and done, the price tag topped $17,000 and the owner was indeed pleased with the results. Recently restored, this Maco Shark was recently unveiled at the Muscle Car and Corvette Nationals in Chicago, where it stole the show.
In 1953 the Corvette was introduced at the Motorama display at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City. It was conceived by Harley J. Earl. It was a two seat convertible built by GM aimed at capturing the small car market from manufacturers like Jaguar and MG. All 1953 Corvettes were convertibles with black canvas tops, Polo white with red interiors, and built by hand.
Power came from an existing Chevrolet 235 cubic inch 6 cylinder engine. Modifications were done to it such as a three carburetor design and dual exhaust which resulted in higher horsepower ratings. The 150 hp 'Blue Flame Special' engine was paired with a a2-speed automatic gearbox. The first twenty-five vehicles used the standard Chevrolet 'baby moon' passenger car wheel covers due to a shortage of wheel covers.
During the 1953 production year, 300 Corvettes were produced making it the rarest Corvette. 255 are still in existence. In 1953 the base price for the Corvette was $3,498 with a heater and AM radio offered as optional equipment. The heater could be purchased for $91.40 and the AM Radio for $145.15.
The 1954 Corvettes were built at a newly renovated facility located in St. Lous Missouri. That year, GM had high hopes for its new sports-car flag ship vehicle. They expected 10,000 Corvettes to be built and sold. However, only 3,640 vehicles were made but only about 600 of them were sold. Chevrolet was finally able to unload the rest of them in 1955 although it proved to be very difficult.
The 235 cubic inch six-cylinder was modified during the middle of 1954. A camshaft change increased horsepower to 155. Also, three new exterior colors were offered: Pennant Blue, Sportsman Red, and Black. A beige interior was introduced. 4 black, 100 red, 300 blue, and 3,230 white vehicles were produced.
The base price of the 1954 corvette was $2,774.00, over $500 less than then 1953 model.
1955 could have been the year that Chevrolet stop producing the Corvette. It was plagued by slow-selling 1954 versions. Styling remained the same for the 1955 model year. GM decided to insert a new 265 cubic inch V-8 engine into car and as well as offered a manual transmission. The 195 horsepower idea worked. A Soviet emigrant named Zora Arkus-Duntov (also known as the 'Father of the Corvette') is credited as being the engineer responsible for making the manual transmission work with the new V8 engine. This transformed the Corvette into a true sports car bringing the 0-100 time from 41 seconds to 24 seconds. Just in time to do battle with Ford's Thunderbird. It is easy to distinquish the sixy-cylinder versions from the V-8 version. GM had an enlarged gold 'V' in the word 'Chevrolet' located on the front fender. This meant the vehicle was powered by the V8 engine. The 8 cylinder used a 12-volt while the six cylinder remained with the 6-volt electrical system.
Also during this year, Zora Arkus-Duntov, a former European road racer, set a new record in the Daytona 'Measured Mile' reaching a speed slightly above 150 miles per hours.
Up to this point in history, the Corvettes were not selling very well. Corvette decided to change that by offering bigger engines, better handling, options, and new styling. The projecting taillights were removed and were placed into the fender. The side of the car received a large scallop. This was similar to the Cadillac LeSalle II and Buick Wildcat II. Roll-up windows became available, outside door handles, and an optional power system for the convertible top.
The new V8 option was about 40 pounds lighter than the six cylinder option. It was also shorter and lower which meant better weight distribution throughout the vehicle. With the standard Carter four-barrel carburetor, 210 horsepower was produced. By adding the optional second four-barrel carburetor, the horsepower was increased to 225.
The 1956 Corvette was able to climb to the top of the 12.5 mile Pikes Peak in a record 17 minutes and 24 seconds. The enthusiasm did not catch on. So they decided to beat their competition at top speed. The Jaguar XK-120 was capable of 130 mph, and the Mercedes gull-wing 300SL could do 140-146 mph. At Daytona on the sandy beach the Corvette ran two certified runs that averaged 150.5 miles per hour.
Four cars were entered into the 12-hour Sebring race. The results were disappointing. Two Corvettes did not finish, while the other two received a 15th place finish, and a 9th place finish.
In February 1956, a General Motors factory team arrived at Daytona Beach looking for a speed record. Three specially prepared Corvettes, driven by John Flitch, Betty Skelton and Zora Arkus-Duntov, achieved their moment of glory when one of the Corvettes broke the 150 mph mark. This was an incredible high speed for a production car.
A month after the record breaking Daytona run, this 1956 Corvette was the Class B winner, 9th overall, at the 1956 Sebring 12-Hour Race driven by John Fitch and Walter Hansgen. It is fitted with a 307 cubic inch engine coupled to a 4-speed ZF transmission.
Following this summer of 1956 performance, Chevy's ad department touted the triumph in national ads calling the Corvette, 'The Real McCoy!'
The body of the 1957 Corvette was unchanged from the 1956 version. The base price was increased slightly to $3,176. The heater, the cars most popular option, still had not become standard equipment.
An SS version was produced to race at Sebring. This car had bigger brakes, engine modifications, and other racing-inspired improvements. The Corvette qualification went well and was placed near the front of the pack. Unfortunately, after 23 laps the car was un-drivable and had to retire from the race. A rear-bushing had failed after the eighth lap.
This Chevrolet Corvette 'SS' was an experimental magnesium-bodied car and set a new lap record at Sebring, Florida, in 1957. It has served as the forerunner of many Corvette sports/racing models. Zora Arkus-Duntov, engineer-designer of the car, presented it to the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on May 29, 1967, during the drivers' meeting prior to the 51st Indy 500 mile race, which was paced by a Chevrolet Camaro.
In 1958, six colors were offered for the Corvette. The most powerful engine to be offered during this year was the fuel-injected 283 cubic inch V-8 that was capable of 290 horsepower. The heater was still optional. A handling package was offered that provided stiffer springs and heavier finned brake drums with metallic brake linings.
The Corvette received quad-headlights. The chassis length was increased to 177.2 inches, and the width to 72.8. It also received 200 extra pounds, even though these are not the modifications that sports-car drivers typically like to see. The car, in a way, became more 'secure' with bumpers being secured to the frame. The nitrocellulose paint was replaced with acrylic lacquer. More chrome was added to the front and back of the vehicle. The interior was revamped. All the instruments on the dash were relocated with the highlight being the 160 mph speedometer.
1958 was the year of Harley Earl's retirement.
In 1960, production of the Corvette finally reached and exceeded 10,000 cars. The base price had risen to $3,872. From 1960 through 1962, minor styling and performance enhancements were introduced to make the car more appealing to buyers.
Briggs Cunningham, a famous American racer and sportsman entered three Corvettes into the 24-Hours of LeMans. One of the vehicles finished eight place.
1961 was the final year that whitewall tires were offered on the Corvette. It was also the last year for the 'coves' that were painted in contrasting colors. The exterior of the 1961 Corvette saw some changes. The grill of the vehicle was modified, removing the 'teeth' that had been apart of the Corvette since its inception in 1953. The back had four round tail-lights.
The copper-core radiators were replaced with aluminum versions. This increased capacity by 10 percent while reducing weight by almost half. The engine was now producing 315 horsepower from the 283-cubic-inch V-8 with Rochester fuel injection.
Stock Corvettes were entered into the 12-hour Sebring race by a Dallas Texas Chevrolet dealer named Delmo Johnson. Johnson and his co-driver Dale Morgan finished 11th. This was the best placing for a stock Corvette to date.
During the 1961 production run, 10,939 Corvettes were produced. The base price was $3,934, with half of the buyers buying the removable top option.
The 1962 Corvette was the last year for the C1 generation. The 1962 Corvette utilized the 327 cubic-inch engine for the first time.
This particular car has the 327 cubic-inch engine generating 340 horsepower. The car cost $4,038 new, and they produced 14,531 units that year.
In 1963, Corvette introduced its all new Corvette Coupé and Convertible models called the Sting Rays. The car incorporated a boat-tail taper that was common of sporting roadster of the 1930s. The back featured a Bugatti Atlantique and Bertone BAT inspired split rear-window. This styling was replaced in 1964 with a single piece because of drivers complaining about visibility problems. The headlights were concealed in the front and would 'pop' out when in use.
New plants in St. Louis, Missouri were opened to keep pace with the vehicles popularity.
This was the very first time Corvette was available as a hardtop coupe model as well as the traditional convertible. The wheelbase was shortened by four inches to 98 inch. This, along with independent rear suspension, improved the handling and maneuverability. The steering ratio decreased from 3.4 to 2.9 turns-to-lock. Hydraulically assisted power steering was also offered for the first time. The drum brakes were still used. The optional sintered metallic linings and finned aluminum brake drums were offered and allowed greater fade resistance and better cooling.
During the development process, the car was called the XP-720.
For the 1965 year, there were no major improvements to the body of the vehicle. However, under the hood lurked a new engine. The 396 cubic-inch V-8 was introduced offering 425 horsepower. A bulge in the hood of the Corvette hinted at this monster engine it was hiding. Disc brakes were added and helped in stopping the vehicle. For an optional price, the exhaust pipes could be fitted to the side of the car, just like they had been done for the Bill Mitchell show cars.
The 1967 Corvette is the most popular of the 'Sting Ray' models built from 1963 thru 1967.
The third generation of Corvettes began in 1968 and lasted for 15 years. The design was different in appearance from any other Corvette. Their design cues came from Bill Mitchell's 'Mako Shark II' concept vehicle. The Mako Shark II was displayed at the New York International Auto Show in April of 1965. A running version using a 427-cubic inch V8 was displayed at the Paris Salon. For the rest of 1965, the vehicle was toured throughout the United States and Europe.
The design featured hidden windshield wipers and headlights, and removable T-Tops. A luggage rack was optional on the coupe models.
One of the big problems that plagued the designers of the 1968 Vette was engine cooling. For the production version, cooling was still barely sufficient for big block engines with air conditioning.
The 327 cubic-inch, 300 horsepower engine was offered as standard equipment. The L71 aluminum head L89 427 cubic-inch, 535 horsepower engine was still offered as optional equipment. The Powerglide automatic transmission was no longer offered. As its replacement, a three-speed Turbo Hydra-Matic was offered which improved performance and fuel efficiency.
During the 1968 production year, 9,936 coupes with removable roof panels and rear windows, and 18,360 convertibles were sold.
For 1969, the word 'Stingray' was placed on the front fender.
During the 1970 Corvette production year, the small block 350-cubic-inch engine was offered. It generated 370 horsepower. The displacement on the 'Big Block' was increased to 454 cubic-inches, which now offered a 390-425 horsepower rating in the LS5 version.
The ZR1 and ZR2 package was offered to satisfy the buyers who wanted a vehicle they could race. These vehicles were stripped of radios, power steering, power windows, and air conditioning. The ZR2 used the LS6 454 cubic-inch engine, of which only 12 were purchased. The ZR1, based on the LT1, was purchased by eight buyers.
During 1970, Congress passed the Clean Air Bill in the National Environmental Policy Act due to oil embargos and increasing government regulations about the fuel. This established regulations specifying fuel economy and emissions standards. By doing so, the big block faced extinction due to standards it could never meet. Toxic emissions were to be cut by 90 percent for all engines in less than six years.
In 1971, a special-purpose 'Big Block' V8 was available that produced 425 horsepower. But 1971 was the last year for 'gross' horsepower ratings. The industry changed to a 'net' rating system that accounted for the exhaust system, vehicle accessories and other components. It provided a truer measure of an engine's performance and is still used today.
1971 was also the year that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEX) failed to negotiate price increases with 17 western oil companies. In doing so, the price of a barrel of Middle-Eastern crude oil was nearly doubled. OPEC and Western companies reduced production and export volume by nearly 75 percent before the end of 1973. As a result, gas prices began to rise.
Emission standards and insurance companies were responsible for many of the changes that occurred to the Corvette and other vehicles during this period. A 5-mile-per-hour impact-resistant bumper was now part of the law. So the Corvette was fitted with a 'soft nose' bumper that complied with these new regulations. It had urethane plastic skin and was painted in the color of the body of the car and added 35 pounds to the weight of the vehicle. The hardtop's rear window was no longer removable. This was an attempt to limit exhaust fumes from entering the interior of the vehicle.
The 454-cubic-inch engine was still available but was now packing five extra horsepower over the previous year and now rated at 275 hp. It was renamed to LS4. The hydraulic-lifter L82, small block produced 250 horsepower from the cast-iron 350-cubic-inch engine. The engine and body mounts were changed and more sound insulation was added throughout the body. This stiffened the car and decreased road and mechanic noise.
This was the last year that the Corvette was offered with the Big Block engine. The Corvette had been under 'attack' from some-time due to rising emissions and insurance standards. So Chevy finally stopped offering the 454-cubic-inch engine and also removed the dual exhausts from the small block. The exhaust was collected into a single catalytic converter from which it would then split into two twin mufflers and tailpipes. Unleaded fuel was introduced by Petroleum refineries and General Motors was forced to re-engineer their vehicles to run on the lower octane.
The front and rear chrome bumpers were removed.
For the 1974 model year, 32,028 coupes and 5,474 convertibles were sold. The base price of the coupe was $6,000 which included the 350-cubic-inch 195-hp engine. Power steering was the most popular option.
This was the last year the convertible would be made for the Corvette until 1986. This decision came about due to poor convertible sales the year prior, and new, stricter laws mandating rollover-protection.
The only optional engine available for the Corvette was the 350-cubic-inch L82 that was capable of producing 205 horsepower. The base model was increased by $800 to $6,800. The price increase was in part due to meeting and complying with federal clean air and vehicle safety regulations.
The standard engine also received less horsepower than the previous years and was now producing 165 horsepower.
This was also the year Zora Arkus-Duntove, the chief engineer for the Corvette for nearly 22 years, retired. David McLelan was his replacement.
The interior of the 1977 Corvette was redesigned mainly so it could accommodate the GM Delco radios.
The big landmark achieved during 1977 was the 500,00th Corvette. This vehicle was produced at the St. Louis assembly plant.
During the 1977 model year, the power steering was a very popular with all vehicles, except 173, ordered the optional equipment. Every car purchased had the optional power brakes. Leather seats became standard for the first time, however the cloth seats could be chosen at no extra cost. The base price for the Corvette was now $8,650. 49,213 Corvettes were produced this year.
1978 was the Corvettes 25th anniversary, and in celebration and recognition, was offered the official Pace Car position of the Indianapolis 500. This was also the 62nd running of the Indianapolis 500.
Chevrolet produced two special edition Corvettes, one being a Pace Car appearance edition and the other a special silver anniversary paint package. The silver anniversary paint package was a $399 option of which 15,283 were produced. 6,502 Corvettes were Pace Car editions and delivered to showrooms, one for each Chevrolet dealership. The price of the Pace Car edition was $13,650 while the base model sold for $9,350. The L48 engine was standard with the L82 optional.
With the optional L82 205-hp engine, the Corvette could charge to 60 mph in 7.4 seconds.
During the 1979 production year, GM produced 53,807 Corvettes. This is a record that is still standing today.
During the 1982 model year, there were no manual gearboxes available for sale. The three-speed-plus-overdrive automatic gearbox was standard equipment.
25,407 Corvettes were produced during 1982, with 6,759 of those being 'Collect Edition.'
There were no 1983 Corvettes produced for public sale, but 43 pilot models of the new-generation Corvette were built in 1983 for testing purposes. Today, one of those 1983 pilots is on display at the Corvette Assembly Plant in Bowling Green, Kentucky. The rest were scrapped.
1984 was the first year of a redesigned, all new corvette since 1968. During the initial stages of designing the concept that would eventually become the production vehicle, many ideas were entertained. John Delorian, the general manager of Chevrolet, had suggested shortening the vehicle by using the F-body platform which was used for the Firebird and Camaro. This would save chassis pieces and development expenses. The idea was passed-over. Another idea was to improve performance and handling by using the mid-engine design. This idea also did not happen. Mid-engine cars were mostly owned by wealthy people who had many vehicles to choose from. On the other hand, Corvettes were often the only
vehicle owned by the owner. This meant the vehicle would need to be practical enough to do domesticated chores such as hauling groceries.
The new Corvette would have to meet fuel economy, safety, and emission standards. One way the Corvette was successful at overcoming these obstacles was to become 25 percent more aerodynamic and by reducing the weight by 250 pounds. The wheelbase was also shortened by 2 inches and the length was decreased by almost 9 inches. A colapsible steering column was installed in the event of a head-on collision. The 'breadloaf', a padded structure located where a glove-box usually is located, was used to help cusion the passenger in the event of an accident.
Chevrolets smallblock eight-cylinder engine produced 205 horsepower. The new four+three-speed manual gearbox was located behind the engine. The new 'electronic control module' or ECM provided shorter, quicker shifts. An automatic four-speed Turbo-Hydra-Matic gearbox was still available upon request. A zero-to-sixty mph could be achieved in about 7 seconds with a top speed in the neighborhood of 140 mph.
A double wishbone front suspension and five-link independent rear suspension was teamed with Goodyear Gator back unidirectional tires. This was in response to Dave McLellan's performance targets for the 1983 Corvette, that is should be the best-handling sports car in the world. The Goodyear tires were developed based on work done on Formula One rain tire development. The tires were also capable of holding up to the nearly 150 mph top speed. They were quiet, visually appealing, long lasting, and provided the response that was required in a Corvette.
During the 17 month, 1984 Corvette model year, 51,474 cars were sold. The first seventy vehicles that rolled of the production line were kept by General Motors for enineering and development purposes. The base price was set at $21,800.
The rear wheel size was increased to 9.5 inches wide.
The 1985 model year was the second year for the C4 series of the Corvette. During this model year, 39,729 Corvettes were sold. The base price was $24,878.
For 1985, updates were done to improve the ride of the vehicle. This was done by adjusting the shock valving on both the Z51 Blistein gas shocks and the base shocks. The spring rates in the fiberglass transverse leaves were also modified and helped with the improvement.
The front wheel size were enlarged.
The 1986 Corvette received a convertible option, now seen since the 1975 model year. To celebrate, the Corvette once again took to the track to pace the Indy 500. All convertibles were designated Pace Car replicas.
New for this year was the PASS-Key theft-detternt system which now came standard on all Corvette models.
To add to the performance of the Corvette, 4-wheel ABS brakes were added. Horsepower from the 5.7 liter V-8 rose to 230. The suspension received attention and improvements.
1989 was a great year for the Corvette. The performance and handling recieved much attention propelling this car even further ahead of its competition.
Chevrolet equipped the Corvettes with the Performance Handling Package as standard equipment. The visual appeal of the car was enhanced with 17-inch wheels and tire.
New for this year was the Selective Ride Control adjustable suspension. This allowed the driver to select between three different operating modes: 'Touring,' 'Sport' and 'Performance.'
A 6-speed manual transmission was also made available.
Production Total for the 1989 model year were as follows: 30,632 total production. 20,007 coupes. 10,625 convertibles.
In 1990, Chevrolet introduced the ZR-1 package. This was a limited-production, high-performance version of the standard Corvette. The ZR-1 consisted of a 32-valve, daul overhead cam, LT5 engine designed by Lotus Engineering and built by Mercury Marine. To segregate the standard Corvette from the ZR-1 Corvette, an all new convex rear fascia and quad rectangular tail-lights were fitted to the ZR-1.
The ZR-1 was among the fastest street cars being produced during its time. The ZR-1 was discontinued in 1995.
The interior of the Corvettes received a new cockpit design which included analog gauges and digital readouts. The Corvettes became safer with the addition of driver-side air bags.
The standard L98 engine had its power increased from 230 hp to 250 hp.
For the 1991 model year, the Corvette received styling refinements. The ZR-1 performance package, introduced the prior year, was further segregate from the standard Corvette when the high-mounted stop lamp was reposition into the rear fascia for both the Coupe and Convertible.
New wrap-around front parking and cornering lamps were added as well as new side-panel louvers and a ZR-1 style convex rear fascia on all models.
The production total for the 1991 model year was 20,639. 14,967 were coupes including 2044 ZR1s and 5672 were convertibles.
The second generation LT1 engine was introduced and became the standard engine for the Corvette. It was capable of producing 300 horsepower, a great increase from just a few years prior when in 1989 the standard horsepower was 230 and in 1990 the horsepower rating was 250.
It received the LT1 designation because it was the first Chevrolet 'Small Block' to surpass the horsepower of the original LT1 in 1970.
New for this year was the Goodyear GS-C asymmetrical tires and the Acceleration Slip Regulation (ASR) system, both standard equipment.
The Corvettes that contained the ZR-1 performance package were branded with a ZR-1 badge mounted on the side of its clam-shell hood.
This was also the year of a major accomplishment. The one-millionth Corvette rolled off Bowling Green, Kentucky's assembly line on July 2nd, 1992.
The production total for the 1992 model year was 21,590 with 15,450 being coupes including 448 ZR1s and 5692 being convertibles.
New for the 1993 year was the increase in horsepower for the LT5 engine. The engine was not capable of producing 405 horsepower.
A special 40th Anniversary package became available on all models.
Passive Keyless Entry (PKE) was also added as standard equipment.
For the 1994 Corvette model year, the interior received attention. The cockpit was given a single piece instrument panel and new door panels. In 1990, air bags were added for the driver. Now, in 1994, airbags were not available for both the driver and the passenger. The Standard and Sport seats received styling updates. Leather seats were now standard.
The production total for the 1994 model year was 20,742 which included 15,771 coupes of which 448 were ZR1s, and 4971 convertibles.
1995 was the last year for the ZR-1 performance package.
During this year, it was once again the Official Indianapolis 500 Pace car. An honor it was last bestowed in 1987, the same year the Convertible option was re-introduced, after being absent since 1975.
There were minor styling enhancements; the most noticeable change was the revised grill panel design.
The production total for the 1995 model year was 20,742 which 15,771 were coupes including 448 ZR1s and 4971 were convertibles.
To add to the heritage of the celebrated Corvette in 1996, a Grand Sport and Collector Edition became available. These two distinctive Corvettes marked the end of the fourth generation Corvette.
The Grand Sport engine was fitted with the new LT4 engine.
1997 was the first year for the fifth generation Corvette, a generation that would last until 2004. The C5 was a radically change from its predecessor. The engine was an all-new aluminum push-rod V8 that was lighter, more powerful, and more fuel efficient than its predecessor.
The rigidity of the Corvette was enhanced by a new process called hydro-forming. This created frame rails from a continuous steel tube. The transmission was moved to the rear of the car and connected to the engine via a torque tube. This not only improved the performance, but also the balance.
The cockpit became larger and the controls became handier. Due to the frame requiring less space, it was easier to get in and out.By Daniel Vaughan | Jun 2019
Very few vehicles elicit the same kind of satisfaction as the Chevrolet Corvette. The ‘Vette is a symbol of childhood dreams and grown up triumph. The only true American Sports car, this car stands for excellence and became an icon as a high-performance and dynamic sports vehicle.
First introduced in January of 1953, the Corvette has only become more renowned as the years drift by. Undergoing many changes and restyles as any other vehicle will over the years, the Corvette has experienced new engines, transmission, chassis, features, body colors and so much more. Starting with a 235 cu-in 6-cylinder engine, the Corvette has since switched to a V8 with a horsepower that is improving each year. Over the years, the Corvette has also been offered in different trim models, the hardtops, coupes, convertibles, ZR-1s and Z06. Several different special editions models were also featured over the years to mark Corvette's step up into a new generation. The Corvette was always a 2-seater vehicle, Chevy has always offered and included features and equipments that were sophisticated enough to please owners and buyers.
A sports car manufactured by Chevrolet, the Corvette was originally handbuilt in Flint, Michigan and St. Louis, Missouri and is today built at a General Motors assembly plant in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Bowling Green, Kentucky is also the home of the National Corvette Museum and annual National Corvette. The Corvette is the first all-American sports car built by an American car manufacturer.
Automotive styling and design wasn't important to American automobile manufacturers until 1927 when General Motors hired designer Harley Earl. Earl is responsible for the majority of GM's amazing ‘dream car' designs of the 1950's. He had a passion for sports cars, and convinced GM that they needed to build a two-seat sports car much like the MGs, Alfa Romeos and Jaguars that GI's were bringing home following World War II.
Codenamed ‘Opel', Earl and his Special Projects crew began work on the new car later that year, and the result was the 1953 Corvette. Introduced to the public at the Motorama car show, the Corvette was an instant success. The Corvette emblem was originally going to have an American flag in the design, but was changed well before production. The name Corvette was chosen by Myron Scott who named it after the corvette, a small, maneuverable fighting frigate.
Considered to be revolutionary at the time, the outer body was originally made out of fiberglass, selected in part because of steel quotas left over from the war. Underneath the fiberglass lay the 'Blue Flame' inline six-cylinder truck engine, drum brakes from Chevrolet's regular car line, and two-speed Powerglide automatic transmission. The performance of the Corvette was considered lackluster and underpowered compared to the British and Italian sports cars of the day. Lacking an adequate manual transmission, it took a great deal of effort as well as a clear roadway to bring to a stop.
The Chevrolet division was GM's entry-level marque and until that time was known for its no-nonsense, though excellent vehicles. The Corvette was evidence to this. In 1954 the Paxton supercharger was made available as a dealer-installed option which greatly improved the Corvette's straight-line performance. Unfortunately sales continued to decline.
For some time GM seriously considered deleting the Corvette, leaving it little more than a footnote in automotive history, but two important events halted this. The introduction of Chevrolet's first V8 engine in 1955 and the influence of a Soviet émigré in GM's engineering department, Zora Arkus-Duntov. The new V8 was backed with a three-speed manual transmission, this was done by Arkus-Duntov, and became the single most important modification in the car's history. This took the Corvette from a two seat vehicle to a genuine performer. For his role in the modification, Zora received the inaccurate nickname 'Father of the Corvette'.
The two-seat Ford Thunderbird was introduced in 1955 and was labeled as a ‘personal luxury car', not a sports car. The arrival of the Thunderbird was yet another key factor in the Corvette's survival. The rivalry between Ford-Chevrolet demanded that GM not appear to back down from the challenge, and in 1958 the Thunderbird was changed to a four-seater vehicle.
Twice the size of the second biggest company in the world at the time, General Motors was so big that it made more than half of the vehicles sold in the United States. Entering the 1950's, the U.S. Department of Justice's antitrust division was threatening to break up the company. GM had a huge conglomeration of businesses that ranged from providing insurance, home appliances, buildings GMCs, Pontiacs, Chevrolets, Oldsmobiles, Cadillacs, Buicks and locomotives. But even with all of these achievements, GM didn't make the sports car. Producing a vehicle of this nature that could compare with MG, Triumph or Jaguar was a laughable concept at the time.
In charge of the corporation's ambitious musings, Harley J. Earl became working on a concept for an open sports car that would sell for around the price of a mainstream American sedan, about $2,000. Seemingly far-fetched, his ideas were passed on to Robert F. McLean, and the concept vehicle was produced.
Using off-the-shelf Chevy mechanical components to keep the costs at a minimum, McLean built the chassis and suspensions for all intents and purposes, the 1952 Chevy sedans. The drivetrain and passenger compartment were shoved rearward to achieve a 53/47 front-to-rear weight distribution within its 102-inch wheelbase. The same inline six that powered all Chevy's, the engine did receive a higher compression ratio, triple Carter side-draft carbs and a more aggressive cam that upped its output to 150 horsepower. A two-speed Powerglide automatic was bolted behind the six to calm the feat that the Chevy manual transmission couldn't handle the extreme power.
Though much attention to detail was put into this concept vehicle, the Corvette was only intended to be part of GM's Motorama exhibit at the 1953 New York Auto Show. This was until Chevy's then recently appointed chief engineer, Ed Cole saw the vehicle. Beyond impressed, Cole was responsible, after minor corporate machinations, for propelling it into production.
The viewers at the New Show loved the new 1953 Motorama Corvette nearly as much as Cole and thousands of potentials clamored for information as to when they could buy it. They were told six months later. On June 30th, 1953, the Corvette was available to the public.
Undeniably beautiful, with a fiberglass body that was quite innovative the 1953 Corvette wasn't as impressive as it could have been. Though the chassis handled better with the newly improved weight distribution, it still held a '52 Chevy suspension inside. The front end was suspended by a primitive independent system, while the rear was held up with leaf springs. The '53 Corvette wasn't as cheap as Earl had originally hoped either, priced at $3,498. Motor Trend rated the first Corvettes as reaching 0-60 in an unimpressive 11.5 seconds.
Due to the late start of the Corvette production, only 300 Polo White examples were built of the 1953 model before it was time to introduce the new 54. The 1954 Corvette was produced in an old millwork building in St. Louis and remained virtually unchanged except that it could be now ordered in Black, Sportsman Red, and Pennant Blue, in addition to Polo White. For the 1954 year, a total of 3,640 units were built, with many of them remaining on dealer lots. Until the Corvette produced performance to match its appearance, buyers were skeptical to purchase the new ‘sports car'.
In 1955 the Chevrolet Corvette achieved the single most important development in its history, Chevrolet's brilliant small-block V8. The first small-block was rated at 195 horsepower and displacing 265 cubic inches. Performance remained slightly unimpressive with the Powerglide transmission remaining. The oversize ‘V' along the front fenders was also tweaked this year. GM restricted production of the 1955 model to only 700 cars, while the previous year models were still clogging dealer lots.
Many consider the 1956 Corvette as the breakthrough year that established the vehicle as an American icon, and as a legitimate performance machine. The new body was stunning with flashy chrome teeth in the front, scalloped flanks, and curvy trunk area. The interior was fashioned into a cockpit-like style with bucket seats, and a body-colored frame that divided the passenger space. For the first time, a removable hardtop was offered as an option.
GM began racing the 1956 Corvette. Now rated at 210 horsepower, the only engine offered in the '56 Corvette was the 265-cubic-inch V8, backed, for the first time ever, with a three-speed manual transmission. In February of 1965, Duntov appeared with the new Corvette's for John Fitch and Betty Skelton at Florida's Daytona Speedweeks. With a compression ratio that was increased to 10.3 to 1, reworked cylinder heads and a few other emerging speed parts for the small-black had the V8 up to 255 horsepower.
Following the Speedweeks adventure, Corvette advertising took a monumental leap that now heralded the car's performance, competition and credentials.
The new 1957 Corvette resembled the '56 in appearance, but on the inside a new four-speed manual transmission, the great T-10, was available for the first time. Growing 283 cubic inches, the standard Corvette engine now achieved 220 horsepower through a single four-barrel carburetor. For this year, Chevrolet finally made available the performance-upgraded engines as options. The 283 could be had with dual-quad carbs that were rated at either 245 or 270 horsepower, or with Rochester mechanical fuel injection.
On top of the 283, fuel injection increased its output to either 250 or 283 horsepower, one horsepower per cubic inch. Driving beautifully, the Corvette was suddenly one of the world's truly quick cars. For the 1957 model year, Chevy built 6,339 models, with only 1,040 of then carrying the fuel-injected engine.
For 1958, both the exterior and interior of the Corvette were significantly restyled. The cockpit theme was exaggerated even more in this new model with a grab bar in front of the passenger rather than instrumentation. On the exterior, new dual headlights, simulated hood louvers and more chrome were added. The engine could still be any of the four different variations on the 283 small-block. Now making 230 horsepower, the single four-barrel version also had dual-quad versions that were rated at 245 and 270 horsepower and the fuelie engines now made either 250 or 290 horsepower. Chevy produced 9,168 units of the 1958 Corvette.
The 1959 Corvette was a much cleaner version with a lot less chrome, and the removal of the fake hood louvers. A total of 9,670 units were produced for the 1959 model year.
A year later, the Corvette didn't look much different, but the rated outputs of the fuel-injected versions grew to 275 and a full 315 horsepower. To tame the solid rear axle, a rear anti-sway bar was added. For the first time, more than 10,000 Corvettes were built.
For the 1961 Corvette, a brand new toothless front grill was at front and center, along with a new ‘duck tail' rear end. Besides the two exterior updates not much was changed on the '61 Corvette. This was the final year for the 1950's favorite, wide whitewall tires on the options list. This was the first year for a rare new option, the 24-gallon oversized fuel tank.
For 1962, the Chevy Corvette introduced a big new engine as the small-block V8 grew to 327 cubic inches. Now achieving 250 horsepower, the base four-barrel engine offered higher output versions available in 300 and 340 horsepower versions. For this year, the dual-quad option was dropped, but now rated at an impressive 360 horsepower, the fuel injection system was back.
Many enthusiasts claim that the '62 Corvette was the best, with its blacked-out grille and new rocker panel molding. Though the chassis was still closely related to the '52 Chevy sedan, this year the Corvette was certainly the best of the first-generation, solid rear axle Corvettes.
The most delightful automotive designs of all time, the 1963 Corvette was the ‘midyear' model, more than four decades after its introduction. Bill Mitchell, Harley Earl's successor as GM design chief was responsible for the new ‘provocative' look. Working with his assistant Larry Shinoda, back in the late ‘50s, Mitchell had designed a new body for an old SS chassis that had been built to race at Sebring. He created the Sting Ray by designing a new body for it with a high waistline, sharply creased fenders and a chiseled prow.
At the same time that Mitchell creating the Sting Ray body style, Zora Arkus-Duntov, Corvette chief engineer was constructing what he hoped would be a world-class chassis for his baby. Reducing the wheelbase down by four inches to 98, Zora built a much stiffer ladder frame than the previous X-member design, than now allowed the passenger compartment to be sunk down between the rails. Economical in both cost and usage of space, Arkus-Duntov also designed a new independent rear suspension that used a single transverse nine-leaf spring and the half shafts as part of the linkage.
For the first time ever, the fastback coupe was introduced by the culmination of the Mitchell/Shinoda body design with the new Duntov chassis that resulted in the 1963 Corvette roadster.
Outrageously attractive, the new 1963 Corvette featured rotating hidden headlamps across the front, and a boat tail-shaped rear window. A thick center bar spilt the rear window in two, a feature that nicknamed the car ‘split window coupe'. The most cluttered of the Sting Rays, the ‘3 model came with phony vent grilles in the hood, ribbed rocker moldings, non-functional gills in the front fenders, and the bar the bisected the rear window.
All of the engines still displaced 327 cubic inches, and most of the engines carried over from the ‘62 to the '63, along with the general styling of the rear quarters and the four-wheel drum brakes. The standard transmission was still a three-speed manual, and the base 327 V8 was still rated at 250 horsepower. Optional was 300 and 240 horsepower four barrel, and the 360-horsepower fuel-injected versions of the 327. Including such features as metallic brake pads, an oversize fuel tank, and heavy-duty suspension, the legendary ‘Z06' race pack option was also available. Production for the Z06 package was limited though, due the high priced fuel-injected engine.
Tested by Motor Trend, the 1963 Corvette reached zero to 60 seconds in 5.8 seconds, and reached the quarter-mile in 14.5 seconds at 102 mph. For the first time, sales toped 20,000 in a year as the Sting Ray sold 10,594 coupes and 10,919 convertibles.
The following year, the Sting Ray remained mostly the same as the previous year's model. The dummy hood vents were removed, the roof vents were restyled, while the center bar was taken out of the rear window to seriously improve visibility. For this year, the 360-horsepower four-barrel 327 was offered as an option, while the fuelie motor was now rated at an impressive 375 horsepower.
The 1965 Corvette featured three functional vertical louvers in each front fender. Newly available for this year, the 396-cubic-inch big-block V8 was available on this year's model. The final year for the mechanical fuel-injected 327 engine, GM introduced the ‘L78' 396 that produced 425 horsepower.
Lasting only one year, the 396 was replaced by the 427-cubic-inch version of the big-block V8 in 1966. Corvette buyers cold choose the standard 327, now rated at 300 horsepower, or a 350-horse version that inhaled through a single four-barrel, the 'L39' 427 which achieved 390 horsepower, or the ‘L72' 427 which was rated at 425 horsepower.
The parking brake was moved from underneath the dash to in between the bucket seats for 1967, and the louver count on each front fender went up to five. The new ‘L88' 427 engine featured aluminum cylinder heads and an impressive 12.5-to-1 compression ratio to make somewhere near 500 horsepower while carrying the large 850-cfm four-barrel carburetor. Ordering the L88 option automatically eliminated the radio, heater and fan shroud, and carried an extreme $947.90 price tag. Only 20 L88s were ever built, and today are considered to be the most desirable of the original Sting Rays.
The new ‘L68' 427 and rated at 400 horsepower was new to the Corvette option charts, along with the L71 427 rated at 435 horsepower that featured three two-barrel carburetors.
The third-generation Corvette was considered to be quite restrained in details, while quite flamboyant in its shape. No scoops, or extraneous chrome anywhere on the vehicle, and the fenders seem to envelop the tires. For 1968, the coupe and convertible Corvettes were again offered. The coupe showcased swooping buttresses on both sides of a tunneled-in rear window while the convertible stowed its top under a hinged hard cover. The first T-tops were introduced on the coupe, two removable roof panels, in this year. The body was all new, but the chassis and drivetrains remained the same. The standard engine continued to remain a 300-horsepower 327 small-block V8 that was topped by a four-barrel carburetor, the wheelbase remained at 98 inches. Optional engines included a 350-horsepower 327 and the L88, and the big-block 427. Selling a total of 9,936 coupes and 18,630 convertibles, the 1968 Corvette achieved yet another record year.
The Sting Ray name returned for the 1969 model year, now prominently displaying the name on the fenders in chrome script. The assembly quality was remarkably improved, with minor updated including relocating the ignition key to the steering wheel, and adding backup lights into the taillights. Mechanically, the largest change was the replacement of the 327-cubic-inch small-block V8s with the newer 350-cubic-inch versions. The 350 versions were rated at 300 horsepower in the base model, and the optional 'L46' featured 350 horsepower. Carrying the same power force as the 1968 models, the 427s returned.
An amazing addition to the Corvette line, the ZL-1 engine was introduced this year. Simply en L88 427 big-block V8 exceptionally done in all-aluminum construction, the new Corvette was 20 to 25 lbs lighter than a small-block. Only two of the 585-horsepower ZL-1s were ever produced and they were built simply for road racing and equipped accordingly.
The new 1970 Corvette was produced with four vertical side vents on each front ender, and amber from single lights along with square exhaust outlets. Standard equipment included a four-speed manual transmission which replaced the three-speed. A new 370-horsepower ‘LT-1' 350 entered the engine lineup with the new 1970 model. The 427 was replaced in favor of two new 454-cubic-inch big V8s, a 390-horsepower LS5 which carried a four-barrel carburetor, and a tri-power equipped ‘LS7' which reached an impressive 460 horsepower. Unfortunately the LS7 had a $3,000 price option, and no record has been found of any being built.
For 1971, compression ratios on all Corvette engines dropped due to stricter emission controls in force. The Lt-1 350 was reduced to 330 horsepower, while the base 350 now went to 270 horsepower. The detuned LS5 454 reached a minor 365 horsepower. The LS7 354 was deleted and replaced with an ‘LS6' 454 four-barrel V8 that was rated at 425 horsepower. Though these were still impressive numbers, it wasn't compared to previous Corvette performance.
For 1972, the power drain continued and was even more so exaggerated by a switch from SAE gross to SAE net power ratings. The base 350 only carried 200-horsepower rating, while the LT1 achieved only 255 horsepower. The sole big-block engine, an LS5 454 only achieved an unimpressive 270 horsepower. As part of a club-racing package, only 30 1972 Corvettes were powered by a special ‘ZR1' version of the LT-1 350.
The 1973 Corvette featured a body-colored rubberized front bumper that replaced the chrome strip that had taken precedence on earlier models. Standard for the first time were openings and radial tires, and now side vents were now single, almost vertical. Unfortunately power was reduced again, making the base 350 now rated at 190 horsepower. A brand new optional 'L-82' 350 featured 250 horsepower. Rated at 275 horsepower, the sold 454 was an 'LS4'.
The new nose on the Corvette also showcased with a matching wedge-shaped, body-colored tail for the 1974 model; the response from designers coping with new bumper regulations. 1974 was the final year for the big-block V8.
Only two engine choices were offered in 1975, the base engine being the 350 V8 which achieved only 165 horsepower, and the L82 which only reached 205 horsepower. Both engines exhaled through a catalytic converter. The 1975 Corvette featured a modification to the bumper system that transformed the rear bumper cover into a one-piece molding. For the 1975 model year, Chevy sold 33,836 coupes and 4,629 convertibles.
Production on the Corvette convertible was ended in 1976. The base ‘L48' was now rated at 180 horsepower as engineers were able to learn more about emission regulations, while the L82 350 reached 210 horsepower. Both of these engines exhaled through four-barrel carburetors. Similar to those used on the Camaro and Vega, the Corvette received a new four-spoke steering wheel for 1976; unfortunately this wheel was almost instantly despised by most fans. Also new this year was the newly grained dash with ‘stitching' molded in.
For the 1977 model year, the Stingray lettering was taken off the fenders. The car basically remained the same for this year with the only other change being the steel reinforcements being added to the hood.
Celebrating 25 years in automotive history, the 1978 Corvette featured a tail redesigned with a large wraparound rear window instead of the buttresses that had been one of the coupe's signature design elements for years. Though the new window did enlarge the luggage capacity, it unfortunately didn't open, so loading cargo was a matter of working around the seats. New instrumentation was added to the interior, which featured a lockable glove-box, and the windshield wiper controls being moved to a stalk on the steering column.
The base L48 350 was rated now at 185 horsepower, while a new dual-snorkel intake increased the output of theL82 version to 220 horsepower. The three-speed automatic was optional while standard transmission continued with a four-speed manual. Extremely popular, the 1978 Corvette was definitely not the quickest Corvette, but a total of 40,725 models were produced.
For the 1978 model year two special-edition models were featured. The ‘Silver Anniversary' edition showcased a two-tone silver-on-top/charcoal-on-bottom paint job while the limited-edition Indy Pace Car featured the iconic black-on-top/silver-on-bottom with a deep chin spoiler and ducktail rear spoiler. Buyers were very impressed with the pace car, this being the first time that the Corvette had paced the May classic. Only aout 6,500 pace cars were produced.
For the first time, production was boosted to beyond 50,000 units with the 1979 model. Changes on the exterior of the car were minor, but the main update was in a dual snorkel air cleaner that now fed the L48 350 that boosted output to 195 horsepower. The L82 now reached 225 horsepower with larger valves, a higher-compression ratio and a more efficient exhaust system.
The 1980 Corvette went through an extensive design update along with a weight reduction. Weighing 250 pounds lighter, the '80 Corvette was available in either manual or automatic transmission. The base L48 350 now achieved 190 horsepower in every state except California, while the L82 was rated at 230. In California the 305-cubic-inch V8 only reached 180 horsepower. Sales were decreased to 40,506 units for the 1980 year.
The 1981 Corvette introduced a new, much lighter fiberglass transverse rear leaf spring. The only engine available, the 190-horsepower ‘L81' version of the 350 V8 was all that was offered. Production of the Corvette moved from St. Louis to a new facility in Bowling Green, Kentucky in June of this year.
For the 1982 Corvette, manual transmission was eliminated, and all models were equipped with a four-speed automatic transmission for this year. Following 17 years of absence, fuel-injection was brought back during this model year, this time with the new ‘Cross-Fire Injection', an electronic throttle body system. The new fuel injection system upped the output of the L81 to 200 horsepower. Sales in 1982 ended with a total of 25,407 units.
The 'Collector Edition' was offered in 1982 and featured silver-beige paint, multivaned wheels, unique graphics, a rear glass window that opened hydraulically and bronze-colored glass roof panels.
The 1983 Corvette was radically updated from the previous year. None of the 43 preproduction '1983' C4 Corvettes were ever sold the general public. In March of 1983, Corvette introduced the 1984 model. The new model featured a 96.2-inch wheelbase, cast aluminum suspension components and a larger interior with fully digital instrumentation.
Keeping many of the C3 styling themes, though they were more conservatively expressed, the old coupe's T-tops were exchanged for a single fiberglass section easily removable with a wrench. Access to the engine was easy with the hood being a giant clamshell piece, and the hideaway headlights were now single square units on rotating mounts. Significantly improved from before, everything mechanical on the C4 Corvette was updated. Using composite transverse leaf springs both on the front and the back, the new suspension system was ideal. For the first time the steering was by rack-and-pinion, the brakes were oversized discs. Making for a stiffer structure, the frame itself featured a large aluminum C-section beam. The new C4 also featured huge tires, Goodyear P255/50VR16 unidirectional 'Gatorbacks' on 16-inch wheels. The small-block 350 V8 was carried over and was once again equipped with Cross-Fire throttle body fuel injection that was now rated at 205 horsepower.
The only transmission available at the start of the 1984 model run was the four-speed automatic, but by January of '84 a brand new Doug Nash '4+3' manual transmission was made available with an electronically engaged overdrive on the top three gears. With an amazing total of 53,877 models sold, the 1984 Corvette established itself as the dominant car in showroom stock racing.
For 1985 the Corvette received the new Tuned Port Injected (TPI) version of the 350-cubic-inch small block. The output of the V8 was increased to 230 horsepower due to the new and much more efficient induction system. The ‘L98' engine was joined to a more comfortable suspension resulting in a significantly improved Corvette.
For 1986 the Corvette lineup included a bright yellow version that was used to pace that year's Indianapolis 500. Bosch antilock brakes were also added for the first time, making the Corvette a safer ‘everyday' vehicle. All Corvette coupes received a third brake light that was placed over its rear hatch, while the convertible received one integrated into the rear fascia. A total of 7,315 convertibles and 27,794 Corvette coupes were sold in 1986.
In 1987 the Corvette received hydraulic roller lifters to the L98's valve train which boosted its output to 240 horsepower. Other than that adaptation the Corvette remained basically unchanged. The options list stretched to include a new Z-52 suspension system which gave higher performance with the sacrifice of comfort, along with new electronic tire-pressure monitors.
The 1988 model featured new 17-inch wheels inside P275/40ZR17 tires on the list of options. The L98 was boosted to 245 horsepower with the addition of new aluminum cylinder heads and a revised camshaft with more improved torque characteristics.
For 1989 the new manual transmission was a ZF 6-speed that had a ‘skip shift' feature that forced a shift from first to fourth gear under part throttle conditions to improve fuel economy. A new FX3 selective ride control system for the Z51-equipped coupes was featured, along with new optional fiberglass hardtop for the convertible.
Never available as a convertible, the ZR-1 was the big news for 1990. Designed and build around the Lotus-designed, Mercury Marine-built, all aluminum, 5.7-liter, DOHC, 32-valve LT5 V8, nicknamed ‘King of the Hill', the ZR-1 achieved an astonishing 375 horsepower. That amount of horsepower was reached only when an in-dash key was set in ‘full-power' mode, not the ‘valet' mode which limited it to just 250 horsepower. The ZR-1 only offered one transmission, the ZF six-speed with large P315/35ZR17 tires on very wide wheels. The ZR-1 received widened rear fenders that featured a new rear fascia that was distinguished by squared-off taillights and convex rear fascia. Nearly twice the price of a regular L98-powered Corvette, the ZR-1 was priced at an exorbitant $58,995.
1990 Corvettes featured a new dashboard with greatly improved mixture of both digital and analog instrumentation, better sound systems, improved ventilation, and a driver airbag.
The following year featured a restyling that included a slicker front end that incorporated wraparound foglights, and a new rear fascia that was similar to the ZR-1's. The rear fascia incorporated the third brake light. New wheels were also added to the '90 Corvette. The price of the ZR-1 skyrocketed to $64,138, and became the first GM automobile to carry a price higher that $60K.
The L98 was deleted in 1992 and replaced with new next-generation small-block V8, the LT1. The new engine was rated at 300 horsepower due to significant revisions to the accessory drives, cylinder heads, fuel injection and cooling system. ASR, Acceleration Slip Regulation was a new traction control feature that could be turned off.
With no other sports car ever coming close, on July 2, 1992, the millionth Chevy Corvette, a white 1992 convertible was built.
In 1993 a special 40th anniversary package was featured on both LT1 and ZR-1 Corvettes that basically consisted of badges and special Ruby Red paint. The LT5 engine was refined while the ZR-1 received boosted horsepower that leapt from 375 to an amazing 405. This was most the powerful production Corvette at the time.
1994 Corvettes featured the addition of a passenger airbag along with updated cockpit trim and steering wheel. To improve drivability and to simplify emission control, the LT1 was treated to sequential fuel injection that didn't increase total power output. New five-spoke wheels were added to the ZR-1.
The 1995 Corvette showcased new side gills that set it apart from previous edition. The brakes were improved for the year, along with revised springs, a quieter-running engine fan and de Carbon gas-charged shocks. A Corvette convertible for the third time paced the Indy 500. The final year for the ZR-1 was 1995.
The ZR-1 was replaced with two very unique editions that marked the end of C4 production in 1996. The ‘Collector's Edition' was offered on both coupes and convertibles and consisted mostly of five-spoke wheels, special emblems and Sebring Silver paint. The second was the Grand Sport, which took its name, along with its blue-with-white-stripe paint job, from an early 1960's racing Corvette and featured an amplified version of the LT1 small-block that was called the ‘LT4'. The small-block achieved a very impressive 330 horsepower.
Entering the fifth-generation of Corvettes, the 1997 edition was most wholly new Corvette since 1953. The complete concept of how the car was built was even changed, along with a brand new engine. Rather than like previous models, the '97 Corvette split the transmission off and placed it between the rear wheels in the back of the car to evenly offset the weight of the engine in front. Previous models bolted its transmission directly behind the engine. A radical innovation for the Corvette, this transaxle arrangement had been used on vehicles like the Porsche 928. The wheels and tires were now 18-inchers in the back, and 17s up front, though the suspension itself still used aluminum links and transverse leaf springs, there was no provision for a spare tire since all tires would be of run-flat design.
Relying on engineered wood products to make up part of the floor, the new frame utilized large, hydroformed rails along with a thick backbone for additional strength. Only offered for the year, the hatchback coupe body shared styling themes from the previous two generations of Corvettes though it did have reduced front and rear overhangs as the wheels moved out toward the corners of the vehicle. A less expensive conventional hood replaced the clamshell hood.
Unrelated to any previous Corvette V8, the C5's engine was brand new. Using all the latest production techniques, C5's 'Gen III' ‘LS1' was an all-new, all-aluminum design that still displaced a nominal 5.7 liters and using a single in-block camshaft to drive the two valves per cylinder via pushrods like the old small block. The C5 engine reached an impressive 345 horsepower. The rear-mounted transmissions were either a version of Chevy's own 4L60-E four-speed automatic or the Borg-Warner T56 six-speed manual or
Not much was changed for the 1998 Corvette except for the addition of a convertible model to the C5 Corvette range. The convertible included a trunk that was accessible from outside of the vehicle, a feat that had not been achieved since the 1962. Offered optional for this year was magnesium wheels. Corvette once again paced the Indianapolis 500, this time selling models to the public, in bluish purple.
The 1999 Corvette featured a fixed roof coupe that was much lighter than either the convertible or the hatchback coupe. New for this year to the options list was a head-up display unit that projected major information on the windshield in front of the driver.
The 2000 Convertible dismissed the passenger-side door lock cylinder as the keyless entry system made it virtually unnecessary. Two new exterior colors were also showcased in 2000, Millennium Yellow and Dark Bowling Green Metallic. The new interior color, Torch Red, was also featured, along with new five-spoke forged aluminum wheels.
The following year Chevy introduced the impressive Z06 Corvette for 2001. A high-compression, low-reciprocating-weight version of the LS1, the LS6 competed with the Z06 for 385 horsepower, while shooting its exhaust out a titanium system. Featuring a special FE4 suspension, the Z06 had a stiffer suspension and thicker anti-sway bars in comparison to other C5s. New lightweight wheels and more aggressive Goodyear tires that weren't run-flat in design were also featured. For much less cost, the Z06 matched or exceeded the ZR-1's performance. With an even more flexible and torque-rich engine, the LS1 had an output increase from 345 to 350 horsepower.
The 2003 Z06 was even better, reaching an amazing 405 horsepower that now matched the highest output of the ZR-1. The suspension of the Z06's was retuned to perform even better than previously. A new Electron Blue pain color was featured, along with a sound system revision.
The 50th Anniversary of the Corvette was celebrated in 2003 with the addition of a 50th Anniversary Edition Corvette that offered either an LS1-powered hatchback coupe or convertible. Showcasing a special deep red paint, the new Anniversary edition also featured a selection of new logos along with a new Magnetic Selective Ride Control system. Once again, the 2003 edition was paced at the Indianapolis 500. Regular Corvettes received new standard equipment that included a power passenger seat and a dual-zone climate control system. The Z06 remained virtually unchanged.
2004 did feature several commemorative editions of all three models. The Z06 featured a carbon-fiber hood along with revised shock valving.
Chevy engineers decided to roll all of the best aspects of the C5 and modify them for 2005, rather than starting with a clean slate. The design ideal was to create a vehicle that does more things effectively better than performance cars, and costing two or three times the price. The new Corvette would improve its refinement and performance, while fixing every notable imperfection of the previous generation. New exposed headlamps were featured, a design that had not been done since 1962, alongside a lean grille that created a distinctive ‘face'. To look less disproportionate, the backside of the Corvette was also slimmed down.
A new 6.0 liter ‘LS2' V8 was featured rather than an engine with 350 cubic inches (5.7 liters) of displacement. Output reached an incredible 400 hp and 400 lb-ft of torque now provided performance that was on a level with the world's best from Germany and Italy. The Corvette reached zero to 60 mph in an amazing adrenaline-pumping 4.2 seconds and continuing on to a top speed of 186 mph, according to Chevrolet. Receiving serious upgrades, the standard six-speed manual was also improved. The clutch was now much smoother and lighter with precise shift feel.
Not one suspension part was brought over from the C5, and three suspension setups were available for this model. The optional F55 Magnetic Selective Ride Control suspension automatically adjusts the shock damping rate instantly in response to any changing conditions. The closest thing to ‘Z06-like' performance, the Z51 package included more aggressive dampers and springs, larger cross-drilled brake rotors, larger stabilizer bars and shorter transmission gearing.
Greatly improved on the inside as well, the model featured seats that provided great support along with comfort while offering plenty of headroom to achieve an open and airy cockpit. Easy to remove and install, the standard removable top can be easily handled by just one person.
For 2005 the Chevrolet Corvette C6 convertible received an overhaul of the suspension geometry along with all new bodywork.
Keeping the relatively good fuel economy of the C5 the '06 C6 Coupe had a low drag coefficient and low weight and when equipped with an automatic transmission it achieved 18/27 mpg (city/highway). Slightly better at 18/28, the manual version is outfitted with CAGS, Computer Aided Gear Selection that has been included in all manual transmission since 1989. CAGS improves fuel economy by requiring drivers to shift from 1st gear directly to 4th when at lower RPM's.
A new LS3 engine with increased displacement to 6.2 liters was featured in 2008 and resulted in 430 hp and 424 lb·ft of torque. The 2008 Z06 received the all new TR6060 six speed manual transmission which replaced the T-56. The interior plastic bezel was improved along with the steering rack. Available in limited quantities due to constraints, an optional full leather interior was offered.
A C7 Corvette will debut in 2010 calendar year, according to several issues of Motor Trend magazine.By Jessica Donaldson
Chevrolet Corvette Roars Into Its 60th Year
On June 30, 1953, the first of a new kind of Chevrolet – indeed, a new kind of American car – rolled off an assembly line in Flint, Mich.
The car had only two seats. There were no roll-up windows, or exterior door handles, for that matter. Its body wasn't stamped from steel but, rather, molded from reinforced fiberglass.
While the postwar Baby Boom was in full swing, this was definitely not a family car. This was a very personal vehicle, one that promised a driver and a passenger all of the thrills of the open road.
Skeptics gave the car little chance of lasting beyond an initial run of a few dozen units. However, 60 years later the Chevrolet Corvette survives – and thrives – as an American automotive and cultural icon.
'Through the years, Corvette certainly offered state-of-the-art features, designs, technologies and performance,' said Tadge Juechter, vehicle chief engineer for Corvette. 'However, I think what has made the Corvette such an enduring concept is the exciting experience of driving one.
'No matter what your station in life, when you're behind the wheel of a Corvette, you're an Olympic athlete – able to go faster, stop quicker, and turn better than everyone else,' Juechter continued. 'Very few cars can match that experience. And no other car has delivered that experience as well, or to more people, than the Corvette.'
Barely five months before Tony Kleiber, a Flint plant body assembler, drove that first Chevrolet Corvette off the line and into automotive history, the icon in the making was little more than a designer's dream.
Corvette was first created under the code-name XP-122 to provide Americans with a glimpse of a European-style sports car designed for this side of the Atlantic. It was one of several concept cars unveiled in January, 1953 at the GM Motorama show in the ballroom of the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City.
With a world war not far behind them, people wanting a glimpse of the automotive future lined up around the block to view the new concept vehicles. At the Waldorf Astoria – and at every other Motorama stop across the country -- Chevrolet's sporty little roadster ignited many Americans' imaginations.
In fact, the Corvette was so popular that Chevrolet executives decided to thrust the two-seat roadster into production, albeit on a very limited basis.
Initial plans called for about 150 Corvettes, primarily to help draw potential customers into Chevrolet dealerships scattered across the Ú.S.'s then-48 states. Overwhelming demand doubled the first-year production to 300 units. The following year, the Corvette moved to a GM assembly facility in St. Louis, Mo., where 3,640 Corvettes were built for the 1954 model year.
Those first Corvettes sparked Americans' 60-year love affair with the Corvette. Since 1953, more than 1.5 million Corvettes have been built. Those cars have become synonymous with American performance – from cruising down Americana on Route 66 to taking the checkered flag at the world's most prestigious road race, the 24 Hours of Le Mans.
During the coming months, Chevrolet will kick some tires, open the hood, and climb behind the wheel to highlight 60 years of Corvette design, performance and technology milestones. We hope you enjoy the ride.Source - Chevrolet
Corvette's Chassis Innovations Refined on the Race Track
It's been said that racing improves the breed, and when it comes to the Chevrolet Corvette, nearly six decades of checkered flags are the proof. As Corvette marks its 60th anniversary in 2013, the design of the chassis, suspension and other drivetrain features are rooted in the rigors of competition.
'Candidly, Corvette was not a high-performance car until Zora Arkus-Duntov fitted it with a V-8, and began campaigning Corvettes in racing,' said Tadge Juechter, Corvette's vehicle chief engineer. 'Today, the Corvettes competing in the 24 Hours of Le Mans use many of the same components as Corvettes rolling off the assembly line at Bowling Green.'
The Corvette C6.R is built on the same aluminum frame rails that underpin production Corvette Z06 and ZR1 models. Other production chassis structures in the race car include the windshield frame, the hoop around the rear of the passenger compartment, the door hinge pillars, the drivetrain tunnel, the firewall and the floor pan. Corvette C6.R also uses the production steering column out of the ZR1, with a fully adjustable steering wheel, as well as production rack-and-pinion steering.
For the production Corvette ZR1, the racing influence is also evident in the rear transaxle design that helps achieve a near-perfect 51/49 weight distribution, as well as the racing-developed carbon ceramic brake rotors and Michelin® Pilot® Sport Cup Zero Pressure tires (developed by the same Michelin engineers who developed tires for Corvette Racing in the American Le Mans Series). These features contribute to the ZR1 running Germany's legendary Nürburgring in 7:19.63.
Here's an overview of the chassis technologies that have shaped Corvette performance on and off the track: C2: Independent suspension, disc brakes and aluminum wheels
First-generation (1953-62) Corvettes used a modified passenger car frame and live rear axle, which worked well with the cars' comparatively modest performance output. Substantially greater power was on the horizon for the second-generation Corvette and racing-derived development spearheaded by the legendary Zora Arkus-Duntov – Corvette's first chief engineer – highlighted the need for a dedicated chassis system.
When the 'C2' (Corvette second generation) launched in 1963, it featured a sturdy, ladder-type frame design that was 90 percent stiffer than the sedan-based 'X'-frame of the first-generation models. It also featured an independent rear suspension held in place by a unique transverse leaf-spring design. Besides offering greater handling capability, the independent rear axle was lighter than the previous solid axle design.
The C2 also introduced disc brakes and aluminum wheels, based on designs Duntov refined on Corvette race cars.
'Duntov pioneered the model of technology transfer by applying what was learned on the race track to improve the production cars,' said Juechter, 'That philosophy continues to play an integral role in vehicle development at Chevrolet.' C4:
Únitized structure, composite springs, antilock brakes and traction control
The C4 generation (1984-96) represented an even bigger leap in chassis technology than the C2. The ladder frame that had served the Corvette for about 20 years was replaced by a unitized 'backbone' chassis that, again, was inspired by racing cars. It eliminated several cross members, allowing direct mounting of the rear differential and other components, which enabled greater interior room. It was also lighter than the previous ladder frame.
Integrated on the backbone chassis was a 'cage' incorporating the windshield frame, door frames, rear wall of the 'cockpit,' rocker panels and more. The Corvette's body panels were attached to the chassis and cage, marking the first time in the car's history that it didn't use a conventional body-on-frame design.
When it came to the suspension, the C4 again used unequal-length upper and lower A-arms in the front suspended by a new, transverse spring design similar to the rear suspension. At the rear was another transverse composite spring, but used with a new five-link independent suspension design vs. the previous three-link setup. The reinforced fiberglass springs were exceptionally strong yet compliant, and they worked in two ways: They flattened as they flexed, but when the vehicle rolled in a turn, they effectively formed an S shape. That added roll stiffness, which minimized the size – and weight – of the stabilizer bars.
Additional C4 chassis/drivetrain innovations included rack-and-pinion steering (1984), aluminum driveshaft (1984), aluminum disc brake calipers (1984), antilock brakes (1986) and traction control (1992).
The C4 was an unqualified success on the track. In its first year of competition, the C4 Corvette went undefeated and captured the SCCA Showroom Stock GT-class championship. That launched a renewed effort on racing and the benefits of technology transfer. C5: Hydroformed rails, rear transaxle, magnetic ride
The C5 generation (1997-2004) built on the success of the C4 with a new, unitized backbone chassis design, but it was lighter and stronger. Its construction employed a comparatively rare process called hydroforming, which used water pressure and heat to turn six-inch steel tubes into side rails for the Corvette chassis. Each tube replaced what formerly had comprised 36 separate, welded components in the C4 chassis.
The other big advancement with the fifth-generation Corvette was the use of a rear transaxle, which moved the transmission to the rear of the vehicle rather than the traditional position directly behind the engine. The tunnel between the engine and transaxle was enclosed with a panel that contributed to the chassis' strength and rigidity.
'Weight distribution was a primary motivator,' said Juechter. 'We were trying to get to 50/50, balancing the work load on the front and rear tires, which is extremely challenging to do with the front-engine, V-8 powered car. Moving to a rear transaxle dramatically improved the weight balance, as well as enabling a smoother ride and greater interior space.'
Additional C5 chassis/drivetrain innovations included run-flat tires (1997), Active Handling System (1998), magnesium wheels (2002) and Magnetic Selective Ride Control (2003).
The strength and performance capability delivered by the C5 chassis paid huge dividends on the race track. During six years of competition, Corvette Racing – the first factory-backed Corvette team in the car's history – led the C5.R to an overall victory at the Daytona 24-hour race and three 1-2 finishes in the GTS class at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. During the 2004 season, Corvette Racing won every race the team entered and captured every pole position in the American Le Mans Series. C6: Aluminum and magnesium structure
The success of the C5.R racing program directly influenced the design of the C6 Corvette (2005 – 2013) as designers and engineers further strengthened but lightened the proven backbone design.
At a glance, the C6 chassis looks similar to the C5, but it was shortened slightly and strengthened in key areas to enable greater performance and to enhance crashworthiness. And while it retained the same basic suspension design as the C5 – short/long arm front suspension and multi-link rear suspension with transverse composite springs – all of the components were redesigned. No C5 suspension parts were carried over to the C6.
For the first time, different chassis were available with different Corvette models. The higher-performance C6 Z06 and ZR1 models received a unique, aluminum-intensive backbone structure rather than the steel backbone used on other models. It was developed as a lighter foundation, featuring a magnesium roof structure and engine cradle, and weighed only 278 pounds – 49 percent less than the steel backbone's 414 pounds. Like the steel frame, the aluminum chassis was created via hydroforming.
Corvette Racing immediately employed the C6 chassis with its C6.R race cars. Corvette Racing has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans seven times since 2001, most recently beating Ferrari to the checkered flag in 2011.Source - GM
Chevrolet puts a groove into your ride
•Chevrolet celebrates the 60th anniversary of legendary Corvette sports car
•More than 600 tunes mention the iconic Chevrolet brand
•Top 10 Chevrolet Corvette summer song playlist to stream
Hot summer day… roof top down… wind in your hair … smile in your face… and 'Little Red Corvette' cranked up to its loudest setting. There's nothing like music in the car to make a journey really fly by.
But, did you know that, aside from Prince's classic hit, more than 600 songs across all genres and multiple generations mention 'Chevrolet', 'Chevy' or the name of a Chevrolet vehicle in their lyrics?
The summer of 1952 saw the birth of Chevrolet's Corvette and rock and roll radio* and in the decades that followed these two icons have influenced each other and become legends in their own way.
Ever since, musicians like Don McLean and his 'American Pie' and Eric Clapton with 'I've Got a Rock 'N' Roll Heart' have included song lines about the Chevrolets they saw on the road or took out for a spin.
To celebrate Chevrolet's rich music culture and the 60th Anniversary of the Corvette convertible – the ultimate sports car legend with heart-stopping performance and unmistakable styling – has put together a top 10 playlist of summer songs celebrating the iconic brand and its cars.'Chevrolet has sold more than 200 million cars and trucks around the world in its 101-year history, touching the lives of countless owners, families, and fans,' said Beate Stumpe, Director, Brand and Marketing, of Chevrolet Europe. 'It is fitting that we are recognizing these connections and celebrating Chevrolet's role in peoples' lives.'
Test-drive a Chevrolet through your headphones with Chevrolet's Top 10 Chevrolet Corvette summer song playlist.
•Little Red Corvette, Prince – 'Little red Corvette, Baby you're much too fast'
•99 In The Shade, Bon Jovi – 'I got the radio blasting in my old man's Chevrolet'
•American Pie, Don McLean – 'Drove my Chevy to the levee, but the levee was dry'
•Crocodile Rock, Elton John – 'Had an old gold Chevy and a place of my own'
•I've Got A Rock 'N' Roll Heart, Eric Clapton – 'I get off on '57 Chevys'
•Tim McGraw, Taylor Swift – 'Just a boy in a Chevy truck'
•Camaro, Kings Of Leon - 'She look so cool in her new Camaro'
•How Bizarre, OMC – 'Is that a Chevy 69? How bizarre, how bizarre, how bizarre'
•he Greeting Song, Red Hot Chili Peppers – 'My Chevrolet rollin' to another play day'
•Water, The Who – 'My Chevrolet just made steam'Source - GM