Image credits: © Toyota.

2009 Toyota Land Cruiser


2009 Toyota Land Cruiser
The all-new seventh-generation Toyota Land Cruiser, introduced for the 2008 model year, gains new privacy glass on side and rear-quarter windows for 2009.2009 Toyota Land Cruiser
The Land Cruiser is powered by a new-generation 5.7-liter DOHC V8 engine. The engine uses electronic fuel injection, direct Ignition, four valves per cylinder, and a variable-length intake tract to produce 381 horsepower at 5,600 rpm and 401 lb-ft of torque at 3,600 rpm. Ninety percent of peak torque is available at just 2,200 rpm. The Land Cruiser uses regular 87-octane gasoline and is ÚLEV-II certified.

2009 Toyota Land Cruiser
The V8's advanced Dual Variable Valve Timing with intelligence (VVT-i) system controls valve timing and overlap on both the intake and exhaust valves, which helps to optimize power, fuel efficiency and emissions. The Acoustic Control Induction System (ACIS) switches the length of the intake tract in two stages, based on RPM and throttle angle, to improve torque across the engine speed range. Stainless steel exhaust manifolds flow into a full stainless steel exhaust system. A water-cooled oil cooler helps control oil temperature while towing.

2009 Toyota Land Cruiser
The Land Cruiser's six-speed automatic transmission is designed to handle high torque while performing with luxurious smoothness. Fourth gear is direct drive, and both fifth and sixth gears are overdrive gears. The transmission's control unit estimates road conditions to select the appropriate gear ratio for the vehicle's speed and driving conditions. A sequential shift mode allows the driver to select gears manually.

2009 Toyota Land Cruiser
Capability, Handling and Ride
The Land Cruiser's body-on-frame construction provides ruggedness and durability in extreme driving conditions, plus impressive towing capability and ride isolation characteristics. The front of the frame features a three-stage crush structure so frame damage to other areas of the vehicle is minimized in the case of frontal impact.
The Land Cruiser employs a high-mount double-wishbone front suspension system with gas-pressure shock absorbers, a hollow stabilizer bar, and coil springs. The system is designed to suppress alignment change while the suspension travels through its stroke, and maintain an optimal stroke length. This system provides a high level of off-road driving capability and suspension control while maintaining a high level of on-road driving comfort. Approach and departure angles are 30 degrees and 20 degrees, respectively.

At the rear, the reliable and proven four-link, coil-spring with lateral rod format was redesigned to provide a longer suspension stroke for improved on-and off-road performance. The Land Cruiser's rear suspension also features gas-pressure shock absorbers and a hollow stabilizer bar.

The Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS) adjusts the sway resistance provided by the front and rear stabilizer bars. KDSS may reduce maximum body-sway angle by as much as 50 percent to help enhance both on-road handling response and off-highway capability. By using hydraulic cylinders acting on each stabilizer bar and linked by a pressure-sensing valve, KDSS reduces the degree of sway stiffness provided by the stabilizer bars in response to changing road conditions and driver inputs.

In off-road driving situations, the KDSS allows the wheels on each axle to move with a larger degree of side-to-side independence, helping to minimize any tendency for wheel lift. During cornering, when both front and rear cylinders are compressed, no fluid is flowing in the system and the stabilizer bars work conventionally to help reduce body roll. When an uneven surface is encountered, one compressed cylinder causes fluid to flow between the front and rear cylinders, allowing the stabilizer bars to move freely. This action increases wheel articulation and travel, as well as helps to equalize wheel loading. By allowing the stabilizer bars to disengage in certain situations, the nominal stiffness of the bars can be notably increased, thereby reducing body roll and improving handling without negatively affecting ride comfort or off-road performance.

Vital Stats and Specifications
Vital Stats
Engine : 5.7 L., 8-cylinder
Power: 381 hp
Torque: 401 ft-lbs

Land Cruiser rolls on P285/60 R18 mud-and-snow steel-belted radial tires mounted on 18 x 8.0-inch aluminum alloy wheels with a high-gloss finish and include a full-size spare tire. The Land Cruiser has a maximum payload of 1,585 pounds and maximum towing capacity of 8,500 pounds.

The brake system employs 13.4-inch ventilated discs with four-piston calipers up front and 13.6-inch ventilated discs at the rear. Variable gear ratio power-assisted rack-and-pinion steering requires just 3.1 turns lock-to-lock. Gear ratio is set larger around the steering center and smaller around the end position.

The newly-developed JF2A transfer case provides full-time four-wheel drive. This lightweight, compact, chain-driven unit offers a standard 1:1 high ratio for road travel and a low-range 2.618:1 ratio for traversing challenging driving surfaces, such as steep inclines. The system uses a TORSEN® limited-slip locking center differential to distribute power 40:60 front-to-rear, directing more power to the wheels with the best grip should slippage occur. Traction control (TRAC) employs both brake and throttle intervention to help control wheel spin. Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), with a cut-off switch, helps maintain directional control during cornering.

The Crawl Control feature helps make traversing difficult terrain easier and safer. With the transfer case shifted into low range, Crawl Control regulates engine speed and output (along with braking force), to propel the vehicle forward or in reverse at one of three low-speed settings. This allows the driver to maintain focus

Source - Toyota


The fourth-generation Toyota 4Runner sport utility vehicle (SÚV) and firstgeneration Lexus GX 470 luxury utility vehicle, both launched for the 2003 model year, introduced numerous technological advancements. Among these all-new technologies were Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC) and Downhill Assist Control (DAC). Through one of
the world's first uses of active wheel speed sensors, HAC and DAC helped the 4Runner and GX 470 improve their off-road capability.

In vehicles equipped with both HAC and DAC systems, an active wheel speed sensor is located in each wheel. The sensor uses a rotating magnetic encoder located in the wheel hub to detect a magnetic field. Once detected, it delivers digital signals based on the change of magnetic poles. The detection of the magnetic fields allows the
use of magneto-resistive (MR) effects. The active wheel speed sensor is then able to measure the vehicle's extra low speed and rotating wheel direction.

Extra low speed detection is possible because the output signal of the active wheel sensor is proportional to the amplitude of a magnetic field. Because the magnetic field encoder does not depend upon the basic wheel rotation speed, the active wheel sensor can deliver a precise signal, even if the wheel speed is extra low.

2009 Toyota Land CruiserThe active wheel sensors detect rotation direction through the use of two MR elements. If the magnetic encoder detects a change in rotation, the phase between the two MR elements are shifted upside-down. This allows the active wheel sensors to digitally process the signals and provide wheel direction information. The sensor output
is provided in three levels of current via a two-wired interface. In the case of a forward movement, the output is a two-level pulse signal. A three-level output pulse signal is provided in the event of backward movement.

The basic function of the HAC system is to help increase control on steep upgrades and stopping and starting on slippery surfaces. The HAC system is designed to help prevent the vehicle from rolling backward or slipping sideways during transition from a stopped position to climbing an upgrade. The system is automatically activated
when the transmission is in any forward gear. The HAC system controls the brakes to help stop the individual wheel or wheels, which helps prevent the vehicle from rolling backward or slipping sideways.

The HAC system determines the driver's intended vehicle direction from the present gearshift position of the transmission, the moving direction of the vehicle wheels, and the wheel speed of the four wheels through the use of active wheel sensors. When backward rolling or slippage occurs, the HAC system is automatically activated. Úpon
activation the HAC system gently applies the brakes. The HAC system measures the necessary brake pressure of each wheel to help prevent individual wheels from locking and causing vehicle slippage.

The DAC system assists engine braking to help improve directional control during descent on steep or slippery surfaces. When in 4WD low range and with DAC activated, if any one wheel accelerates beyond or below a two-to-four MPH low-speed setting, the DAC system will control the brakes to help ensure the vehicle continues in a
straight position when going down a hill. The DAC system is automatically de-activated if the driver depresses the brake pedal, accelerator pedal, or the DAC button.

The active wheel speed sensors enable the operation of the DAC system by determining current road conditions. The system designed to determine current driver operation through an accelerator pedal angle sensor, master cylinder pressure sensor, and the setting of the L4 position switch. DAC next determines its target vehicle speed
of two-to-four MPH based on road surface and vehicle driving conditions. When the vehicle accelerates during descent, allowing the vehicle speed to exceed the predetermined speed, DAC is activated. The DAC system will calculate the required brake hydraulic pressure for each wheel, allowing each individual wheel to meet the
target vehicle speed.

The HAC system comes standard on Toyota Prius, Land Cruiser, RAV4 V6 and 4Runner. HAC is also available as an option on select four-wheel-drive automatic transmission Tacoma pickup trucks. All Toyota Land Cruiser, RAV4 V6, and 4Runner models with 4WD are standard-equipped with the DAC system. The DAC system is also available as an option on select four-wheel-drive automatic transmission Tacoma models.

Source - Toyota

Related Reading : Toyota Land Cruiser History

The Land Cruiser currently has the longest running history in the Toyota lineup. With origins from the Toyota Jeep BJ which was created in 1951, the name Land Cruiser has since been used from the release of the 20-series in 1955.With the three series of heavy-duty wagon light-duty types being produced simultaneously, the current 2002 120 (Light-duty Prado)-series model marks the tenth....
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2009 Toyota Concepts

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