Honda R&D in Japan took the first steps toward what would become the first-generation NSX in January 1984 with basic research on a new drive system distinct from the 'FF' (front-engine/front-wheel drive) vehicle type that had underpinned Honda's success with such iconic models as Civic, Accord and the Acura Integra. A year earlier, Honda had made its return to Formula 1 racing and its engineers were excited about the prospects of creating a sports car that would showcase the company's deeply rooted racing spirit and high-performance design and engineering capabilities. Also, the R&D team had been contacted several times by the group at American Honda that was planning the launch of the Acura brand, indicating their interest in a pinnacle sports car for the new lineup. The focus of the research was on an underfloor, midship-engine rear-wheel drive (UMR) format that could combine higher packaging efficiency along with the sport characteristics associated with rear drive. It was Honda's first experience designing a passenger car with the engine in the rear half of the vehicle. In February 1984, the development team created a UMR test vehicle using a first-generation Honda City. Formal development of what would become the Acura NSX began in the fall of 1985.
Acura NSX: Did You Know?Roots of NS-X
The prototype NS-X Concept introduced at the Drake Hotel in Chicago in February 1989 was shorter overall than the final production vehicle with a shorter wheelbase and less front and rear overhang. The evolution of the design from prototype to production would be impacted by a late change to the engine specification – from the prototype's SOHC V6, shared with the Acura Legend sedan, to the production NSX's bespoke DOHC V6 with VTEC valvetrain. Prior to the press conference, the president of Honda Motor Co., Ltd., Tadashi Kume, unexpectedly decided to fire up the prototype's engine, a sound that could be heard in an adjacent room, where a competing automaker was holding its own press preview. While the noisy blast attracted media attention, Kume turned to the NSX engineering team and asked why the NS-X Concept didn't use the new VTEC technology that had been recently developed at R&D. When told that it was only planned for a 4-cylinder engine application, Kume pushed the team for a VTEC V6 design. The engineering team received similar input from a group of top enthusiast automotive journalists attending a 'super long lead' driving event at Honda's Tochigi R&D Center, prior to the prototype's Chicago Auto Show debut. These included top testers from Car and Driver, Motor Trend and Road & Track. The reactions were generally very positive; however, there was also a feeling that the NSX could use more power. Ultimately, the DOHC VTEC cylinder head was wider than the head on the prototype's SOHC engine, with significant implications to the production NSX body. The wider engine resulted in a slightly longer wheelbase, along with increased front and rear overhang for the production NSX. All of these changes occurred rapidly, resulting in the longer production model.
An Engine Roars, and Changes Follow
New technology like the all-aluminum unibody and chassis and transverse V6 engine were critical to NSX's capabilities, and challenged conventional wisdom of an exotic car. But key to the dynamic performance story was the human element, and one specific human in particular. In the early stages of development, the R&D team spent an entire month at Honda's Suzuka Circuit, where they conducted numerous evaluations with the test car. In February 1989, around the same time as the NS-X Concept model's debut in Chicago, legendary F1 driver Ayrton Senna was in Japan to test the new Honda F1 car. The engineering team asked Senna if he would evaluate the NSX prototype. Even though the production NSX targeted levels of rigidity equaling Porsche and Ferrari, Senna felt it could be better. 'I'm not sure I can really give you appropriate advice on a mass-production car,' Senna told the team, 'but I feel it's a little fragile.' Based on Senna's input, the team raised its targets for rigidity in April, 1989. They chose the famed Nürburgring for testing, believing that the course would reveal problems they couldn't detect in their testing at Suzuka. They knew that an extremely difficult course like the Nürburgring would expose even a slight delay in the vehicle's response to driver inputs. Sure enough, the 'Green Hell' exposed that the flexing body was taking away the desired feel of an immediate and direct connection between the car and driver. By the end of the Nürburgring tests, and over eight months of continuous effort to improve the body design, engineers had increased the car's rigidity by 50 percent.
Putting the NS-X Prototype to the Ultimate Test
The NS-X development name was one of several created by the R&D team in Japan to represent the prototype supercar. In the view of the development team, the naming concept for NS-X was 'New,' 'Sportscar' and 'unknown world' – with 'X' being the mathematical symbol for a variable, or an unknown value. A team at American Honda, selected NS-X from the list of possible names, but chose to express the definition as 'New Sports eXperimental.' That said, NS-X was not originally intended as the go-to-market model name. It was considered as the name for the prototype to be revealed in Chicago and then to be used in subsequent promotional appearances. But the incredible attention the NS-X received around the world created virtually unstoppable momentum for the name. So, a decision was made to remove the hyphen from NS-X leading to NSX as the official model name for Acura's first supercar.
From NS-X to NSX – Naming Acura's New Supercar
With its multi-material space frame body, groundbreaking three-motor Sport Hybrid Super-Handling All-Wheel Drive™ system , today's NSX pays homage to the groundbreaking nature of the original while exploring altogether new concepts in electrified supercar performance. Also, like the original, the next-gen NSX powertrain design evolved radically from its conceptual origins. The Acura NSX Concept that debuted at the 2012 Detroit Auto Show showcased a naturally-aspirated 60-degree V6 mounted transverse behind the seats in a layout similar to the original NSX; however, in the middle of development, the global R&D team decided to take a more challenging path – the creation of an all-new twin-turbocharged longitudinally mounted 75-degree V6. And, similar to the move to a DOHC V6 in the original, the adoption of a new powertrain concept had wide-ranging effects on the body proportions, aerodynamics package and overall design. 'Changing the powertrain design and layout was NOT an easy task,' said Ted Klaus, NSX Global Development Leader. 'Frankly, it was like undergoing a heart transplant while running a marathon. But 10 seconds behind the wheel, and you understand why this power unit is key to delivering a New Sports Experience.' Despite the major powertrain change, the development team maintained the original schedule – revealing the production version of the second-generation NSX just three years later at the 2015 Detroit Auto Show.
NSX Today: A Common Thread