Image credits: © Ferrari.

2016 Ferrari LaFerrari

The technical achievement and performance stand on their own.

The LaFerrari needs few superlatives. It is Ferrari's most ambitious project yet, pushing the boundaries of technology for a road car. It gathers together the marque's greatest technical capabilities from both GT and Formula 1 engineering, delivering the highest performance ever reached by a production Ferrari. And yet, the cause is noble. All this advanced technology will filter to the rest of the Ferrari model range.

As Ferrari's first production car powered by the F1-derived HY-KERS hybrid drivetrain, it combines a 161-hp electric motor wîth the most powerful Ferrari V12, itself making 788 hp at 9000 rpm, for a power sum of 949 hp and 663 lb-ft of torque.

Striking proportions Cutting-edge details

The LaFerrari's silhouette and proportions are a natural product of its architecture wîth hybrid running gear, yet it still echoes the classic mid-rear-engine sports car archetype. Both the drivetrain and cockpit masses stay within the wheelbase to achieve the best possible balance, visually and dynamically.

LaFerrari's BODYWORK

Despite having the KERS system and the related batteries, plus numerous electronic components, the LaFerrari is no larger than the Enzo. Actually, the LaFerrari's front and rear overhangs are better balanced due to packaging the complex powertrain. And when viewed from the front and sides, a sharply downward-sloping nose emphasizes the muscular fenders, echoing the glorious Ferrari sports prototypes on the late 1960s and early 1970s like the 330 P4 and the 312P.

Entirely new concept
The LaFerrari's driving position draws heavily from F1 influence, wîth Scuderia drivers directly involved in design and development. The cockpit clearly shows its motorsports origins, yet marries tradition and modernity. The driving position turns normal road-car conventions on their head. The seat is fixed in position. Both the §teering wheel and pedal box adjust to meet the driver's hands and feet.

LaFerrari's CABIN
The §teering wheel shows in-depth research and development tied to motorsports wîth the LaFerrari's various functions integrated in Formula 1 fashion. Designers lengthened the gear-shift paddles, making them more ergonomic. The gearbox control's bridge in the center of the cockpit takes on a suspended wing shape. Lastly, the instrument panel's secondary controls for audio, navigation, climate and telemetry are located on the door and the center of the dashboard, highlighting the mission-critical controls directly in front of the driver.

A reconfigurable digital instrument panel gives the choice of a traditional central tachometer or a more competition-derived display.


Pushing the boundaries of technology and performance from a road car, the LaFerrari embodies the best of GT and Formula 1 engineering for the street. Delivering the highest performance ever achieved by a Ferrari production car, it uses technology that will filter into the rest of the Ferrari range in the future.


Pushing the boundaries of technology and performance from a road car, the LaFerrari embodies the best of GT and Formula 1 engineering for the street. Delivering the highest performance ever achieved by a Ferrari production car, it uses technology that will filter into the rest of the Ferrari range in the future.

HYBRID DRIVETRAIN: A MARRIAGE MADE FOR POWER.The LaFerrari is the first production car to emerge from Maranello wîth a hybrid drivetrain. The 6.3-liter V12 produces 788 hp, while the electric motor adds another 161 hp for a sum of 949 total hp.

It makes full use of Ferrari's KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System) expertise in F1, integrating the two power sources seamlessly and wîth maximum efficiency. The electric motor's strong low-speed torque allowed high-rpm freedom for the internal combustion V12, creating an unending surge of power throughout all speeds and a torque peak of over 663 lb-ft.


Together as a power unit, the overall dimensions of the internal combustion V12, F1 dual-clutch gearbox and electric motor are surprisingly compact. Engineers also replaced the alternator wîth an auxiliary electric motor, which not only helps compactness, it also removes weight. Always lòòking ahead, Ferrari implemented the HY-KERS architecture to be flexible and modular for future application in other models.

The power unit's electric motor is designed wîth high specific power density, enabling engineers to drastically reduce weight and space in relation to available torque. Performance figures compare to an F1 car wîth the same torque density and efficiency (94%). Battery size is critical to maintaining the HY-KERS power-to-weight ratio.

An extremely complex assembly of 120 cells fitting into eight modules generate the equivalent of 40 traditional batteries, yet weigh merely 132 pounds. Capitalizing on in-house talent, Scuderia Ferrari manufactures the high-voltage batteries. While driving, the batteries are charged under braking - even hard braking when anti-lock is triggered as when on a racetrack - and every moment the V12 produces more torque than required, as when cornering. Rather than the being sent to the wheels, this excess torque is converted to energy and stored in the batteries.

The HY-KERS system is governed by the Hybrid Power Únit. This controls power delivery from both the V12 and the electric motor through two inverters and two DC-to-DC converters. Variable-frequency control makes torque delivery rapid and precise, improving performance. Carbon dioxide emissions are a low 531 grams per mile without resorting to pure electric drive, the latter being a character not at all in line wîth the LaFerrari. The HY-KERS system itself, however, can be engineered for other vehicles in future applications to run on pure electric drive.


While it produces 788 hp, the LaFerrari V12 spins all the way to 9250 rpm, giving fantastic performance plus an unmistakable Ferrari V12 song. Such high rpms are the results of volumetric, mechanical and combustion efficiencies. Continuously variable-length intake tracts improved volumetric efficiency and performance. This had been a practice perfected in F1 engine technology until rule changes banned its use.

Total torque generated by the whole power unit is over 663 lb-ft. Instantaneous torque from the electric motor at lower revs make for neck-snapping operation while the V12 engine's power delivers an abundance at high revs. The V12's solo peak torque of 516 lb-ft actually arrives at 6750 rpm.

From the dynamic air intakes to the intake plenum, the engine's breathing apparatus maximizes intake volume efficiency. The engine also squeezes the most out of every droplet of fuel wîth a lofty 13.5:1 compression ratio.

A very light, yet strong crankshaft spins in the crankcase. Close attention netted highly aerodynamic counterweights to minimize pumping losses and windage at high rpms.

This crankshaft also benefits from low rotational mass, cut by 19 percent from other V12s in the Ferrari range.

Ferraris must sound special and the LaFerrari breaks new ground sonically. Careful tuning of the exhaust wîth equal-length, 6-into-1 manifolds help deliver an unmistakable, high-pitched Ferrari soundtrack made even higher due to the additional revs at the top end.

The system was hydroformed using Inconel - as Ferrari does in F1 - to keep weight low. Inconel is also very resistant to high temperatures.


Ferrari draws on the Scuderia's F1 experience in materials choice, design, engineering and small-capacity manufacturing, but the teamwork doesn't stop there. Rory Byrne, the legendary F1 designer who conceived 11 Ferrari World Championship-winning cars became a key technical and design consultant.

A working group of GT and F1 engineers first designed a chassis to give the maximum rigidity in all dimensions wîth minimum weight. Several non-traditional decisions were made early on, including the incorporation of the seat structure as part of the chassis. This reduces weight, enables a more compact architecture and lowers the center of gravity.

With these cutting-edge processes, the engineering team betters the Enzo's already rigid platform by 27 percent, beam stiffness by 22 percent and lowers weight by 20 percent. The chassis is built entirely in-house in Maranello alongside the F1 single-seaters using the Scuderia's materials and production.


Vital Stats
Engine : 6.3 L., 12-cylinder
Power: 789 hp
Torque: 516 ft-lbs

7-speed Automatic
All carbon-fiber is not created equal and the LaFerrari uses four different types of it for areas of the car wîth differing missions. The LaFerrari is the first automobile to use a tub made from T800 carbon-fiber. The manufacturing process includes hand-laying sheets of the mesh material to ensure accuracy and quality.

Areas critical to passenger protection such as doors sills use T1000 fabric mesh that offers high energy absorption to surpass the strictest side-impact regulations. Structural body elements use another variation of carbon-fiber, M46J, which is extremely rigid, but even lighter. For the underbody, carbon-fiber is joined by Kevlar® to protect the car's structure from road debris and damage.

This multi-material approach actually reduces the number of components and lowers weight. For example, the one-piece rear section is laid up by hand using a combination of M46J and T800 carbon-fiber sheets before being heated. This creates a very lightweight, yet rigid structure. All of the LaFerrari's carbon-fiber is cured in the F1 chassis autoclaves in two phases between 266°F and 302°F using vacuum bags to remove any voids in the laminate.



The LaFerrari architecture had four objectives: maximize aerodynamic efficiency; deliver ideal weight distribution; achieve the lowest possible center of gravity; and, most importantly, seamlessly integrate the new hybrid power unit. The LaFerrari succeeds on all counts and does so without restricting cabin space, reducing comfort or limiting accessibility.


Compared to the Enzo, the LaFerrari's center of gravity is 1.3-in. lower. Also, weight distribution (41-percent front / 59-percent rear) differs from the Enzo wîth major masses fully inside the wheelbase, helping create a low polar moment of inertia. This aids stability, predictability and grip in all driving conditions.

One of the LaFerrari's greatest challenges is incorporating the hybrid drive system. Despite having the same wheelbase and overall length as the Enzo, the LaFerrari packages its V12 engine, hybrid system, F1 dual-clutch gearbox plus all their cooling systems. Put another way, meticulous, clever engineering and design fits the running gear of two cars in the engine space of one.

The LaFerrari driver is laid back more than in the Enzo and more than in other current production Ferrari models. There's a greater rake to the body, making the LaFerrari a meeting point between sports car and F1 single-seater driving positions. The seat itself is part of the chassis and not bolted into place, improving sensitivity to vehicle dynamics. While the seat is fixed inlace, the pedal box adjusts completely. Similarly, the §teering wheel adjusts for reach and height.



The challenge aerodynamically was to deliver the best aerodynamic efficiency ever achieved by any road car. Through computer modeling at first and subsequent F1 wind tunnel testing, engineers achieved a record level of aero efficiency.


What makes the LaFerrari concept so innovative is the use of active aerodynamics as a tool for the car's other dynamic control systems, delivering a breakthrough in overall performance not possible if both were independent. Integration of active aero wîth the dynamic controls and systems make even better use of the downforce and aero balance gains.

The LaFerrari has an extremely compact frontal area for low drag and the greenhouse shape helps airflow reach the rear air cooling intakes.

The front wing creates downforce by eliminating pitch sensitivity caused by the pronounced splitters. A broad central air vent on the front hood extracts hot air from the radiator.

Finally, the front spoiler also generates downforce. A central flap helps keep the air escaping from the vent close to the bodywork to reduce wake turbulence, while the rear radius of the vent reduces drag.

A scallop behind the front fenders boosts air extraction from around the wheels and improves front diffuser efficiency as well as increasing downforce. The airflow then descends and is channelled by the doors to the rear radiators. The two engine air intakes atop the rear fenders provide a ram effect, which increases power by about 4 hp.

The underbody aerodynamics change as the active rear spoiler is deployed:
• flaps at the rear diffuser rise to increase expansion and therefore air extraction

• flaps at the front diffuser rise to increase expansion and downforce to match, and balance wîth the rear

• at high speeds, the guide vane at the front underbody directs excess air away from the front radiator, reducing drag

Source - Ferrari
Maranello, 5th March 2013 – The wraps are finally off the LaFerrari. The Prancing Horse's eagerly-anticipated limited-series special, of which just 499 will be built, made its world debut today at the Geneva International Motor Show.

'We chose to call this model LaFerrari,' declared Ferrari's President, Luca di Montezemolo, 'because it is the maximum expression of what defines our company – excellence. Excellence in terms of technological innovation, performance, visionary styling and the sheer thrill of driving. Aimed at our collectors, this is a truly extraordinary car which encompasses advanced solutions that, in the future, will find their way onto the rest of the range, and it represents the benchmark for the entire automotive . LaFerrari is the finest expression of our company's unique, unparalleled engineering and design know-how, including that acquired in Formula 1.'

For Ferrari the development of a limited-series special like the LaFerrari represents an opportunity to experiment wîth all the technological solutions that will later filter down onto the production cars. Of particular significance in this context is the introduction of the hybrid system which, making full use of the Scuderia Ferrari's F1 KERS know-how, has resulted in a solution that exalts Ferrari's fundamental values – performance and driving thrills.
The hybrid technology used, known as HY-KERS, represents the perfect combination of maximum performance and lower emissions. LaFerrari in fact emits just 330 g/km of CO2 but without resorting to electric-only drive which would not fit the mission of this model. The HY-KERS system is, however, designed so that in future applications a car can be driven using exclusively electric power for a few kilometres and, during development testing, a full-electric version of LaFerrari achieved just 220 g/km of C02 emissions on the combined cycle.
The LaFerrari is equipped wîth dynamic controls that are integrated for the first time ever on a Ferrari road car wîth active aerodynamics and the HY-KERS system. Thanks to Ferrari's proprietary logic which govern all the systems, the car can achieve absolute levels of performance, aerodynamic efficiency and handling without any form of compromise in any area. A very advanced and uncompromising approach was also taken wîth the interior design which features an HMI inspired by F1 single-seaters.


The LaFerrari's architecture posed the first challenge for the Prancing Horse team at the planning stage of the design. The aim was to achieve ideal weight distribution (59% at the rear) and a compact wheelbase despite the extra bulk of the hybrid system. The result is that all of the masses are situated between the car's two axles and as close as possible to the floor to lower its centre of gravity (by 35 millimetres) and thereby guarantee dynamic handling and compact dimensions.
The layout of the cabin made a significant contribution in this regard. The seat is fixed and tailored to the driver while both the pedal box and §teering wheel are adjustable. The driving position is similar to that of a single-seater and was designed after consultation wîth the Scuderia Ferrari drivers, Fernando Alonso and Felipe Massa, who played an active role throughout the entire development process.
The LaFerrari's chassis features no less than four different types of carbon-fibre, all hand-laminated and autoclave-cured in the racing department using the same design and production methods as the Formula 1 car. This helped optimise the design: various functions were integrated (e.g. seats and battery compartment) into the chassis to improve torsional rigidity (+27%) and beam stiffness (+22%) whilst cutting weight.


The LaFerrari is the first car in Ferrari history to be powered by the HY-KERS system. The ICE represents the pinnacle of engine development and research, wîth a 6262 cc V12 that punches out 800 CV and revs to a maximum of 9,250 rpm, a record for an engine of this displacement. It also features a very high 13.5:1 compression ratio and a high specific output equal to 128 CV per litre. The engine is coupled wîth a 120 Kw (163 CV) electric motor, giving it a combined power output of 963 CV.
The high torque levels available at low revs from the electric motor allowed the engineers to optimise the internal combustion engine's performance at higher revs, thus providing a constant supply of exceptional power throughout the rev range. Total torque generated is in excess of 900 Nm.
The hybrid system is composed of two electric motors developed in collaboration wîth Magneti Marelli – one powering the driven wheels and the second the ancillaries – and a battery pack attached to the floor of the chassis consisting of cells that are assembled in the Scuderia Ferrari department where the KERS for the F138 is also made. The Scuderia's expertise allowed considerable savings in weight and size of the individual components and the batteries weigh just 60 kg while providing the highest energy density possible for this kind of application.
The batteries are charged in different ways: under braking (even hard braking wîth the ABS active) and every time the V12 produces more torque than required, such as in cornering. In the latter instance, rather than the being sent to the wheels, the excess torque is converted to energy and stored in the batteries.
The electric motor is coupled wîth the F1 dual-clutch gearbox to the benefit of optimal weight distribution, but also to boosting energy efficiency as torque is instantly available to the wheels and, vice versa, from the wheels to the electric motor in recharging.


Active aerodynamics play an essential role, as they allow a complete adjustability of the car's configuration to attain LaFerrari's exceptional performance.
The engineers' aim was to deliver the highest degree of aerodynamic efficiency ever achieved wîth any road car, wîth a coefficient of nearly 3, thanks to technical solutions honed wîth CFD analysis and fine-tuned in the F1 Wind Tunnel.
To boost efficiency, the LaFerrari sports active aerodynamic devices front (diffusers and guide vane on the underbody) and rear (diffusers and rear spoiler) which generate downforce when needed without compromising the car's overall drag coefficient. These devices deploy automatically on the basis of a number of different performance parameters which are monitored in real time by the car's dynamic vehicle controls, thus guaranteeing the ideal configuration on the basis of the driving conditions.

Control systems

One further innovative aspect of the LaFerrari is the integration of its active aerodynamics and hybrid system wîth the other dynamic control systems aboard. This means the car responds intelligently to driver inputs, making for a seamless blend of unprecedented performance and unparalleled driving emotions.
Proprietary Ferrari algorithms deliver optimal integration of the electric motor and V12 for instantaneous response. In cornering, for instance, the HY-KERS keeps the V12's revs high to guarantee better acceleration on exit.
The LaFerrari's Brembo braking system is also integrated wîth the hybrid system, and incorporates several new features, including new lightweight callipers designed to guarantee correct cooling and carbon-ceramic material (CCM) discs featuring a new composition.
The car's extreme performance potential called for a different tyre set-up, wîth 265/30 R 19 Pirelli P-Zeros on the front and 345/30 R 20s on the rear.
All in all the car guarantees maximum driving thrills in every situation and performance levels are top level: 0-100 km/h in less than 3 seconds and 0-200 km/h in under 7 seconds, a lap time at Fiorano of under 1'20' – 5 seconds faster than the Enzo and over 3 seconds faster than the F12berlinetta. LaFerrari is thus the fastest road car in Maranello's long history.


The Ferrari design team led by Flavio Manzoni developed the LaFerrari's styling working in close synergy wîth the engineers to emphasise the exacting link between form and function. The result is an extreme, innovative design which retains close links to the marque's tradition. This is most evident in its side profile: the car has a sharp, downward-sloping nose and a very low bonnet which emphasises its muscular wheelarches, a clear nod to the gloriously exuberant forms of late-1960s Ferrari sports prototypes.
The LaFerrari's body has been given a sculptural treatment heavily influenced by its clearly F1-inspired aerodynamics and a tail section that exudes uncompromising sportiness.
Inside there's a newly-designed §teering wheel sporting all the major commands, and the gear-shift paddles are now longer and more ergonomic. The signature bridge on which the F1 gearbox functions are clustered has taken on a sleek, suspended wing-like shape. The whole interior, in fact, has a fiercely track-inspired, pared-back allure.

The Ferrari range

Aside from the new limited-series special, the Ferrari stand also features the complete range which is the most wide-ranging and critically acclaimed in its entire history. The five models all share the same Ferrari DNA in terms of performance, driving pleasure and technology, yet each one has its own strongly unique identity, in line wîth the company's philosophy of 'different Ferraris for different Ferraristi'.

Ferrari's 12-cylinder GT sports car prowess is represented at Geneva by the FF, the very first four-seater and four-wheel drive in Prancing Horse history. It will be sporting a Grigio Ingrid livery wîth an elegant glass roof and Iroko interior. The FF is also now seamlessly integrated wîth Apple technologies, thanks to direct access to the infotainment system via SIRI voice commands and the adoption of two iPad Minis as the entertainment system of choice for the rear seat passengers.

Blistering performance and sublime driving pleasure even at low speeds are assured behind the wheel of the multi-award-winning F12berlinetta, which is powered by a mid-front V12. Únique handling characteristics, extreme aerodynamics and an innovative yet classic design are its signatures. The car on show at Geneva has a Grigio Silverstone livery and a Sella di Cavallo interior.

Moving on to the 8-cylinders, the California 30, in sophisticated Nero Stellato wîth a Crema interior, is a convertible GT that uncompromisingly marries sportiness and versatility. The California's already-massive popularity wîth both press and public alike grew still further after its V8's output was upped by 30 hp to 490 hp, and 30 kg was slashed off its overall weight.

The blistering 458 Italia is a sublime, thoroughbred sports car. It and its drop-top sibling, the 458 Spider, are equipped wîth the same extraordinary mid-rear-mounted V8 engine which was named International Engine of the Year in both 2011 and 2012. These two models continue Ferrari's glorious tradition wîth this particular layout. The coupé seen at Geneva sports an aggressive Bianco Avus livery and sleek black interior wîth carbon-fibre trim, while the Spider, which dominates the Tailor-Made extreme personalisation area, takes its inspiration from the legendary 1957 250 Testa Rossa that sold for a record 16 million dollars at auction at Pebble Beach in 2011. It has the same red and blue livery and a host of competition car details in its cabin, not least of which are suede-upholstered seats and Alutex trim.

Source - Ferrari
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