2014 Camaro Z/28 the Most Track-capable Camaro Ever
Chevrolet today introduced the restyled 2014 Camaro line at the New York Auto Show, including the return of the Z/28, the most iconic model in Camaro history.
The 2014 Camaro models feature a revised exterior design that integrates high-performance aerodynamics for more efficient cooling and stability at high speeds. The new Camaro Z/28 also features a full aerodynamics package that creates downforce at speed, which helps make it the most track-capable offering in Camaro's history.
'As the ultimate track-capable Camaro, this car restores the mission of the original Z/28, and serves as a testament to the expertise of Chevrolet as the best-selling brand of performance cars,' said Mark Reuss, president, GM North America. 'The build sheet is the wish list of any racer: lightweight, high-revving, dry-sump LS7 engine; carbon-ceramic brakes; integrated coolers for track use; true aerodynamic downforce, and a significant reduction in curb weight. This car could only come from Chevrolet, and could only be called the Z/28.'
The first Camaro Z/28 was introduced in 1967, created to compete in the Sports Car Club of America's Trans-Am 2 class. It featured a smaller, lighter, 302-cubic-inch V-8 for improved weight balance, as well as quick-ratio §teering and a heavy-duty suspension for track use. In keeping wîth its road-racing focus, the 1967 Camaro Z/28 was not available wîth an automatic transmission or air conditioning.
While the new Camaro Z/28 is not intended to compete in a specific race series, it is solely focused on track capability. In initial testing, the Camaro Z/28 is three seconds faster per lap than the Camaro ZL1. That extra speed comes from three areas: • Increased grip: The Z/28 is capable of 1.05 g in cornering acceleration, due to comprehensive chassis revisions
• Increased stopping power: the Z/28 features Brembo carbon-ceramic brakes capable of 1.5 g in deceleration, and consistent brake feel, lap after lap • Reduced curb weight: The naturally aspirated Z/28 weighs 300 pounds less than the supercharged Camaro ZL1, wîth changes ranging from lightweight wheels to thinner rear-window glass
Like the original, the 2014 Camaro Z/28 is offered only wîth a manual transmission. (posted on conceptcarz.com) In a nod to modern convenience, air-conditioning is available, but only as an option.
'We set out to make the fastest road-racing Camaro possible that was still street-legal,' said Al Oppenheiser, Camaro chief engineer. 'While the Camaro ZL1 offers exceptional performance on the street, the drag strip, and the track, the Z/28 is entirely focused on the track performance. The Z/28 will be too track-focused for most drivers, but offers road-racers one of the most capable track cars ever offered from an automaker.'
The new 2014 Camaro line will arrive at Chevrolet dealers later in 2013. The Camaro Z/28 is expected to be appearing at track events across the Únited States in spring 2014.
High-performance aerodynamics highlight changes for 2014 CamaroThe 2014 Camaro represents the most significant redesign since the introduction of the fifth-generation Camaro as a concept car in 2006.
'The 2014 Camaro is our opportunity to apply what we have learned listening to our customers, and our continuing development of high-performance models,' said Tom Peters, Camaro exterior design director. 'We look for solutions that are both functional and beautiful so that the result is genuine Chevrolet – simple, powerful, honest, and more than expected.'
Compared to the previous model, the design represents a strong visual change front and rear, resulting in a wider, lower, more contemporary appearance. The front fascia features a wider lower opening, and a narrower upper opening that also updates the appearance of the iconic 'halo ring' HID headlamps on the Camaro RS package. The functional hood vent on the Camaro SS helps reduce heat and aerodynamic lift. Moving to the rear, the sculptural decklid, horizontal lamps and diffuser complete the powerful statement.
The Camaro Z/28 also features a full aerodynamic package designed to produce downforce at track speeds. At the front, the Z/28 features a large splitter, connected to an underbody panel that further reduces lift. In profile, the Z/28 features fender flares over the front and rear wheels, as well as extended rocker panels that contribute to aerodynamic stability. An aggressive rear spoiler and functional diffuser complete the aerodynamic package.
On the interior, the Camaro Z/28 features trim in a distinctive, matte-metallic finish named Octane, the ZL1 flat-bottomed §teering wheel, and standard Recaro seats wîth microfiber suede inserts. The new seats (also available on the coupe versions of the SS and ZL1 models), feature aggressive bolsters for high-performance driving, as well as seat cutouts inspired by the five-point harnesses found on racing seats. To save weight, both front seats incorporate manual adjustment.
The rear seats of the Z/28 have also been modified for weight reduction. A total of nine pounds (four kilograms) was saved by eliminating the seat-back pass through, as well as using high-density foam in place of the rigid structure of the seat back and steel mesh of the seat bottom.
'Únlike the Ford Mustang Boss 302, we felt it was important to keep the 2+2 configuration of the Camaro Z/28 as Chevrolet already has a world-class two-seat sports car in the Corvette,' said Oppenheiser. 'By modifying the construction of the rear seat, we were able to reduce the overall weight of the Z/28 while still preserving the flexibility of 2+2 seating.'
7.0L, LS7 the heart of the Camaro Z/28's track-capable performance
Like the original, the new Camaro Z/28 forgoes ultimate horsepower and torque for improved weight balance and track performance.
In 1967, the most-powerful engine available in a factory Camaro was a 396 cid V-8 wîth 375 horsepower. To prepare the Camaro Z/28 for road racing, engineers specified a lighter, 302 cid V-8, officially rated at 290 horsepower. While the 302 was not the choice for drag racers, it proved ideal for sports-car racing.
Today, the most-powerful engine offered is the Camaro ZL1's supercharged 6.2L LSA, which delivers 580 horsepower. The heart of the 2014 Camaro Z/28 is the lighter, naturally aspirated 7.0L LS7 first introduced in the Corvette Z06.
'The LS7 is ideal for road racing because it delivers amazing performance in a compact, lightweight package,' said Jordan Lee, Small Block chief engineer and program manager. 'The broad torque curve and high redline of the LS7 mean fewer shifts are required for each lap, while the lightweight design improves the front-to-rear weight balance for better handling.'
Co-developed wîth Corvette Racing, the hand-assembled 7.0L (427 cid) V-8 uses a number of high-performance components, including: • Titanium intake valves and connecting rods, and sodium-filled exhaust valves
• CNC-ported aluminum cylinder heads
• Forged-steel crankshaft and main bearing caps
• High-lift camshaft
• Hydroformed exhaust headers
• 11.0:1 compression ratio, and a 7,000 rpm redline.
• 10.5-quart, dry-sump oiling system
For the Camaro Z/28, the LS7 features unique induction and exhaust systems, and delivers at least 500 horsepower (373 kW) and 470 lb-ft of torque (637 Nm).
The racing-style, cold-air induction system and large K&N air filter provide maximum air flow.
The standard dual mode exhaust system and larger-diameter pipes enable improved air flow. By bypassing the mufflers during acceleration, the system increases both the torque and sound generated by the LS7 engine.
The Camaro Z/28 is exclusively offered wîth a Tremec TR6060 manual transmission. (posted on conceptcarz.com) The six-speed features close-ratio gearing and 3.91:1 final drive ratio, both optimized for the power characteristics of the LS7.
Power is distributed to the rear wheels via a limited-slip differential featuring a helical gear set, rather than traditional clutch packs. The new design enables the driver to apply more power and get through corners faster, by continuously adjusting the torque bias to maximize available traction.
The differential works in unison wîth Chevrolet's proprietary Performance Traction Management system, which allows drivers to adjust the level of throttle and brake intervention to match their capability and driving environment.
Únlike some competitors' 'track package' offerings, the Camaro Z/28 makes standard all the cooling systems required for track use. This includes the dry-sump oiling system for the LS7, which is connected to an integral liquid-to-liquid cooling system for engine oil.
A second liquid-to-liquid system provides cooling for the transmission and differential. This system pumps overcooled transmission fluid to a heat exchanger in the rear differential before traveling to the transmission. (posted on conceptcarz.com) This reduces differential temperatures as much as 100 degrees F.
Camaro Z/28 chassis delivers 1.05 g in cornering grip
The singular focus of the Camaro Z/28 is most evident in the chassis, where the most has been made of every component for track use, from the ultra-high performance tires to race-proven dampers.
'We used the very best components in the to deliver uncompromised performance, lap after lap,' said Mark Stielow, Camaro Z/28 engineering manager. 'We made nearly 200 changes to improve the track performance, which cumulatively make the Z/28 capable of 1.05 g in cornering. For perspective, wîth all other things, equal increasing maximum grip from 1 to 1.05 g can cut up to four seconds per lap.'
The Camaro Z/28 is the one of the first production cars fitted wîth race-proven, spool-valve dampers. Compared to a conventional damper that offers only two-way tuning for bump and rebound, a spool-valve damper allows four-way adjustment to precisely tune both bump and rebound settings for high-speed and low-speed wheel motions. The wider tuning range allowed engineers to dramatically increase the damper stiffness on the Camaro Z/28 without a significant change in ride quality. Additional chassis changes include stiffer string rates and suspension bushings for improved cornering response.
The Camaro Z/28 features 19-inch diameter wheels and tires, which reduce unsprung weight by 42 pounds (19 kilograms) per car compared to the 20-inch wheels standard on Camaro SS and ZL1. In addition, the smaller diameter wheels lower the center of gravity by 33 millimeters, further improving handling.
At all four corners, the lightweight, forged aluminum wheels are wrapped in massive 305/30ZR19 tires. This is the first production application of ultra-high performance Pirelli PZero Trofeo R tires, and believed to be the widest front tire on any production car.
To fully exploit the grip of the Pirelli tires, the Camaro Z/28 also features Brembo Carbon Ceramic Matrix™ rotors and fixed, monoblock calipers. The large 394 x 36 mm front rotors are paired wîth six-piston calipers, while the 390 x 32 mm rear rotors are paired four-piston calipers. Compared to similar-size, two-piece steel rotors, the lightweight carbon discs save 28 pounds (12.5 kilograms) per car.
The combination of tire grip and braking power enable the Camaro Z/28 to achieve up to 1.5 g in deceleration. With standard front brake cooling ducts, the Z/28 is also capable of continuous track use unmatched brake feel, lap after lap.
'What makes the Z/28 so addictive is it inspires confidence through every section on the track,' said Stielow. 'The incredible, balanced performance helps you carry much more speed through every corner: the brakes are so good you can adjust your braking points later and later; the grip and suspension damping allows you to carry more speed through the apex; and then the limited slip allows you to make the most of the LS7 as you power out of the corner.'
Extensive lightweighting saved 300 pounds over the Camaro ZL1
To optimize the track performance of the Camaro Z/28, the engineering team subjected it to an intensive lightweighting program, saving 100 pounds (45 kilograms) compared to the naturally aspirated Camaro SS and 300 pounds (136 kilograms) to the supercharged Camaro ZL1.
'We looked at every subsystem for opportunities to save weight,' said Oppenheiser. 'Our goal was to get rid of everything that didn't make the car faster, and keep only what was required by law. For example, we wanted to eliminate the audio system completely, but we had to keep a single speaker for the seat-belt chime to meet safety requirements.'
Other examples of weight savings include: • Eliminated the tire-inflator kit, except for Rhode Island and New Hampshire, where it is required by law
• Removed interior sound deadener, and carpeting from the trunk
• Replaced the standard LN4 battery wîth a smaller, lightweight, LN3 battery
• Specified thinner, 3.2-mm glass for the rear window, compared to 3.5-mm glass on the standard Camaro
• HID headlamps and foglights are not available
• Air conditioning is only available as a stand-alone option
'The team was so fanatical about saving weight, we even stripped the unused wiring out of the harness when we eliminated the fog lights, speakers, and air conditioning,' said Oppenheiser. 'Every ounce saved contributed to making this the most track-capable Camaro we have ever built, and a worthy successor to the Z/28 name.'
Source - Chevrolet
2014 CAMARO Z/28 POWERED BY RACING-PROVEN LS7 V-8
The racing-proven LS7 7.0L V-8 powers the all-new 2014 Camaro Z/28 – the most track-focused production model in the car's history. It's matched wîth a TREMEC TR6060 six-speed manual transmission wîth unique gearing tailored to the LS7's performance characteristics for optimal track performance.
The Z/28 engine is adapted from the LS7 used in the C6 Corvette Z06, which was developed in conjunction wîth Corvette Racing. It is rated at an estimated 500 horsepower (373 kW) and 470 lb.-ft. of torque (637 Nm) in the new Camaro Z/28, wîth a maximum engine speed of 7,100 rpm – a broad rpm range that contributes to higher power and allows the driver to hold gears longer between shifts on the track. That helps keep the engine at peak power for quicker lap times.
'The LS7 lives on in the all-new Z/28, extending a performance legacy while delivering great power density in a lightweight package to give this exciting new Camaro a great feeling of control and balance,' said John Rydzewski, assistant chief engineer for small-block engines. 'It introduced exotic materials and racing-influenced solutions that keep it at the forefront of high-performance technology.'
The LS7 is the most powerful naturally aspirated production engine ever from General Motors and, upon its launch in late 2005, was the first GM engine to receive SAE-certified power ratings.
'In the Camaro lineup, it complements a range of great V-8 choices, starting wîth the 426-horsepower LS3 in the Camaro SS and ending wîth the supercharged LSA rated at 580 horsepower in the Camaro ZL1,' said Rydzewski. 'The LS7's low mass and high rpm capability make it the perfect choice for the lightweight, track-capable Z/28, exemplifying all the strengths and attributes of the small-block architecture.'
Hand-assembled at GM's Performance Build Center, in Wixom, Mich., the LS7 shares the basic Gen IV V-8 architecture as the Camaro SS's 6.2L LS3 engine, but it uses a unique cylinder block casting wîth pressed-in steel cylinder liners to accommodate the engine's larger diameter, 104.8mm cylinder bores – wîth deck-plate boring and honing for optimized bore geometry. It also uses a dry-sump oiling system to ensure full lubrication during the 1.05-g cornering loads the Z/28 is capable of producing.
Internally, the LS7's reciprocating components use racing-derived lightweight technology, including titanium connecting rods and intake valves, to boost horsepower and rpm capability – and reduce overall engine mass. The titanium connecting rods provide perhaps the most direct link from the racetrack. They weigh just 464 grams apiece, almost 30 percent less than the rods in the LS3. Besides being lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance and rpm range, titanium makes the rods extremely durable.
The LS7 exhaust system for the Z/28 is unique and features a tri-Y header design to take advantage of the V-8's firing order. Primary pipe pairings join cylinders one and five, then three and seven on the left bank, wîth cylinders two and four and six and eight paired on the right bank. At each bank, the primary pairings collect into a secondary Y, delivering a combination of pulse separation of adjacent firing cylinders and improved scavenging for the engine's firing order of 1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3. A dual-mode exhaust system and large, three-inch-diameter pipes complement the manifolds' tuning and low restriction. The optimized header and exhaust system improves torque and sound quality from the LS7 engine.
High-flow headsThe LS7's CNC-ported aluminum cylinder heads are designed to meet the high airflow demands of the engine's 7.0-liter displacement, as it ingests more than 100 cubic feet more air per minute than the LS3 V-8 – a nearly 20-percent increase in airflow. To process that airflow capability, a hydraulic roller camshaft wîth 15mm intake and exhaust valve lift is used to allow plenty of air to circulate in and out of the engine.
To ensure optimal, uninterrupted airflow, the LS7's heads have straight, tunnel-like intake runners. Very large by production-vehicle standards – even racing standards – they are designed to maintain fast airflow velocity, providing excellent torque at low rpm and exhilarating horsepower at high rpm.
The heads feature 70cc combustion chambers that are fed by 56mm titanium intake valves, which are larger yet lighter than the valves in the LS3. They are partnered wîth 41mm sodium-filled exhaust valves, which feature hollow stems partially filled wîth a special sodium material that melts and liquefies around 205 degrees F (96 C). The inertia from the valves' opening causes the liquefied sodium to move up inside the stem, dissipating heat better than a conventional exhaust valve.
To accommodate the large valve face diameters, the heads' valve seats are Siamesed; and, taken from experience wîth the engines of Corvette race cars, the LS7's valve angles are held at 12 degrees – vs. 15 degrees for the LS3 – to enhance airflow through the ports to get it into the combustions quicker and wîth less turbulence.
Dry-sump oiling system
A dry-sump oiling system is used wîth the LS7 and is designed to keep the engine fully lubricated during the high-cornering loads the Camaro Z/28 is capable of producing. A 10.5-quart reservoir delivers oil at a constant pressure to a conventional-style oil pump pick-up at the bottom of the engine. The pressurized oil feed keeps the oil pick-up continually immersed in oil at cornering loads exceeding 1.05 g.
Oil circulates through the engine and down to the oil pan, where it is sent back to the reservoir via a scavenge pump. The large-capacity reservoir, combined wîth a high efficiency air-to-oil cooler, provides necessary engine oil cooling under the demands of the engine's power output. With the dry-sump system, oil is added to the engine via the reservoir tank – which includes the oil level dipstick.
Then and now
The engine in the original 1967 Z/28 was a 302-cubic-inch (4.9L) small-block rated at 290 horsepower and 290 lb-ft of torque. It was created by marrying the iron cylinder block of Chevrolet's 283 V-8, which had 4.00-inch bores, wîth the crankshaft of the larger-displacement 327 engine, which delivered a 3.00-inch stroke, creating the 302-cubic-inch displacement that accommodated the engine-size regulation for SCCA's Trans Am-2 class.
With its aluminum cylinder block and heads, as well as a composite intake manifold – and no heavy carburetor – the LS7 engine in the 2014 Camaro Z/28 weighs approximately 20 percent less and produces nearly 73 percent more horsepower than the 1967 302 engine.
Founded in 1911 in Detroit, Chevrolet is now one of the world's largest car brands, doing business in more than 140 countries and selling more than 4.5 million cars and trucks a year. Chevrolet provides customers wîth fuel-efficient vehicles that feature spirited performance, expressive design, and high quality. More information on Chevrolet models can be found at www.chevrolet.com.
Source - Chevrolet
28 Ways Chevrolet Camaro Z/28 Rules the Road Course
DETROIT – Lightweight, nimble and incredibly powerful, the original Z/28 was designed for road racing. The 2014 Z/28 carries the same spirit, wîth every detail engineered specifically to create the ultimate track-capable Camaro.
To enable the Z/28 to quickly lap the most challenging road courses, engineers and designers focused on strengthening three key areas during development: ◾Increased grip: The Z/28 is capable of 1.08 g in cornering acceleration, due to comprehensive chassis revisions ◾Increased stopping power: The Z/28 features Brembo carbon ceramic brakes capable of 1.5 g in deceleration, and consistent brake feel, lap after lap ◾Reduced curb weight: The naturally aspirated Z/28 weighs 300 pounds less than the supercharged Camaro ZL1 and 55 pounds lighter than the Camaro 1LE - wîth changes ranging from lightweight wheels to thinner rear-window glass.
To enhance the balance and overall driving feel of the Z/28, 100 percent of the unsprung mass – suspension, wheels, tires and brake system – differs from the Camaro SS.
'Like the first-generation Z/28, the new model is a road racer first and foremost. It features a wide range of state-of-the-art exterior performance modifications, and weight-reduction measures. It was bred for the track, pure and simple,' said Mark Stielow, Camaro Z/28 engineering manager. Exterior Design and AerodynamicsWith the driving goal focused on peak performance capability, nothing on the exterior is without purpose. It shares several racing-inspired, design best practices and lessons learned wîth the 2014 Corvette Stingray. New and revised exterior content was developed to improve aerodynamics, powertrain cooling and brake-system cooling, helping the Z/28 produce 150 pounds of downforce at 150 mph.
Here are 28 features that helped the Camaro Z/28 lap Germany's famous Nürburgring road course four seconds faster than the Camaro ZL1.
1. Rear spoiler wîth 'wickerbill'
The aerodynamic coefficient of drag goal was achieved wîth original Camaro SS content and an accessory rear spoiler, but to meet the downforce requirements for Z/28, the spoiler was modified wîth a 'wickerbill' – a small, vertical tab at the edge of the spoiler. Although an aesthetically minor change, it helped improve rear lift performance by 70 counts. That allows the Z/28 to handle turns at higher speeds and deliver greater overall high-speed stability.
2. Únique front fascia
The Z/28's unique front fascia is based on the Camaro SS, but the fog lamps, air dam and the upper-base grille are replaced wîth covers that reduce weight from deleting fog lamps, an air duct support bracket, an airflow-optimized grille for enhanced cooling and a modified fascia bottom that incorporates provisions for the brake cooling ducts. They funnel air from the lower grille to the wheelhouse liners and the unique splitter.
3. Front splitter
The Z/28's front splitter is a large aero panel that provides downforce at the front of the car, enhancing cornering capability and high-speed stability. Designed to withstand 250 pounds of downforce at its tip, it is matched wîth an aero closeout panel under the front of the engine compartment that also enhances aero characteristics – along wîth molded-in aero features forward of the front wheels.
A functional carbon fiber hood extractor provides increased engine cooling by allowing hot air an exit route. The design is similar in function to the extractor featured on the Camaro ZL1.
5. Rocker moldings and wheel flare moldings
Specific rocker moldings provide aggressive styling and improved aerodynamic performance, while unique wheel flare moldings cover the Z/28's wide tires. Deflectors at the bottom-front corners of the front wheel flares contribute to the car's downforce-producing aerodynamics. 6. Front wheelhouse liners
Únique wheelhouse liners wîth closeouts work wîth the vehicle underbody to make the most of airflow.
7. Belly pan
The Z/28 underbody incorporates a belly pan that helps reduce front lift. Developed using computational fluid dynamics and wind-tunnel testing. It provides an aero benefit and contributes to drivetrain cooling. Modified NACA duct profiles are designed to draw air into the underbody tunnel area, where the highly energized air provides extra cooling for underbody components affected by the exhaust heat energy of the LS7 engine.
Making the most of mass is a key component of the Z/28's performance capability, contributing to a balanced feel and a high power-to-weight ratio. With a curb weight of 3,820 pounds and 505 horsepower (376 kW), the Z/28 has a power-to-weight ratio of 7.6:1 – or one horsepower for every 7.6 pounds of the car's mass. That compares favorably to other performance coupes, including Audi RS 5 (8.9:1), BMW M3 (8.9:1) and Porsche 911 Carrera (8.7:1).
The Z/28's curb weight is approximately 300 pounds less than the ZL1 and about 55 pounds less the 1LE, despite features that add mass, including a dry-sump oiling system wîth a 10.5-quart reservoir, higher-mass chassis and suspension components such as the support brackets for the front splitter. Engineers offset the mass of those necessary features wîth a targeted weight-loss program that trimmed the Z/28 to the essential elements of performance.
8. Thinner rear window glass
Reducing the thickness of the rear window glass from 3.5 mm to 3.2 mm saved 400 grams.
9. Lightweight rear seat
Although it looks like the rear seat in the SS, the Z/28's rear seat is 4.7 kilograms lighter due to reduced seat foam and a fixed seatback design wîth no folding/pass-through feature.
10. Lightweight wheels and tires
The Z/28's 19-inch aluminum wheels save 8.7 kilograms compared to Camaro SS wheels. Their thin split-spoke design features a back-cut at the rim, reducing mass at the outermost area of the wheel – and reducing spin inertia by 5 percent, for enhanced performance. They are matched wîth track-capable tires that save 13.2 kilograms per vehicle, compared to the SS.
11. Carbon ceramic brake rotors
Lighter than comparably sized steel brake rotors, the Z/28's carbon ceramic rotors save 9.6 kilograms, while also reducing un-sprung weight for immediate, responsive handling.
12. No Air conditioning
Because the Z/28 is intended for the track, air conditioning was deemed non-essential component. The deletion saved 12.9 kilograms. Air conditioning is available as an option.
The Camaro Z/28's powertrain is rooted in the 7.0L LS7 engine that made the Corvette Z06 an instant performance icon. With an SAE-certified 505 horsepower (376 kW) and 481 lb-ft of torque (652 Nm), it complements the lightweight vehicle components to give the car its 7.6:1 power-to-weight ratio while delivering the power to accelerate strongly out of corners and achieve high straightaway speeds.
A close-ratio six-speed manual transmission is the only transmission offered and power is distributed to the rear wheels via a limited-slip differential featuring a helical gear set, rather than traditional clutch packs. The new design enables the driver to apply more power and get through corners faster, by continuously adjusting the torque bias to maximize available traction.
The differential works in unison wîth Chevrolet's proprietary Performance Traction Management system, which allows drivers to adjust the level of throttle and brake intervention to match their capability and driving environment. 13. LS7 engine wîth dry-sump oiling
The racetrack-bred LS7includes features designed for the high-rpm environment of the track, including a durable forged-steel crankshaft, lightweight titanium connecting rods and high-flow cylinder heads wîth lightweight titanium intake valves. It also features a racing-style dry-sump oiling system that helps ensure adequate oil pressure during high-load cornering.
14. Air intake system
The LS7 uses a unique open air box intake system to make the most of high-rpm airflow into the engine. It features a K&N conical air filter and delivers the highest airflow performance of any production Camaro filter system. The air cleaner seals around bottom of the hood, reducing the chance of recirculated hot air being drawn into the engine.
15. Track-capable fuel system
Engineered to meet the fueling demands of the high-output LS7 engine during aggressive driving maneuvers, the road course-ready fuel system is designed to keep the primary fuel pump reservoir full even under hard cornering and maximize the amount of fuel available during high-performance maneuvers around the most grueling road courses. 16. Active dual-mode exhaust system and high-flow converter assembly
The 2014 Z/28's dual-mode exhaust system is engineered to provide high-flow and muscular sound character under aggressive acceleration, while attenuating noise levels in cruising conditions. It actively controls valves that change the flow path of the exhaust for the desired performance, depending on transmission gear and engine speed. With the valves open, the system produces less back pressure and more power from the engine. Additionally, the converter assembly has been modified to increase flow and horsepower.
17. TREMEC TR6060 six-speed manual transmission
Úsed in the Camaro ZL1 and Cadillac CTS V-Series, the TREMEC TR6060 six-speed manual has the capability to stand up to high-performance engines, wîth short throws, smooth gear synchronization and excellent shift feel. Design features include a combination of double-cone and triple-cone synchronizers on all gears. Double-cone synchronizers have two friction surfaces to affect gear acceleration and triple-cone synchronizers have three friction surfaces – the greater the friction surface, the easier the transmission is to shift.
18. 5.1-ratio short-throw shifter
The Z/28 uses a 5.1-ratio short-throw shifter that provides quicker, more precise-feeling gear changes – similar to ZL1 and SS 1LE models.
Chassis and Suspension
The Z/28's performance focus is maximum cornering, braking and lap times. Comprehensive chassis and suspension changes, including a lower center of gravity, specific stabilizer bars, higher-rate coil springs and other chassis and suspension features, enable more than 1.05 g in lateral acceleration and 1.5 g in deceleration. Racing-bred dampers, tires and carbon ceramic brakes play important roles in predictable and consistent maximum performance wîth every lap. 19. Strut tower brace
The Z/28 uses the same tower strut brace as the Camaro SS 1LE to provide extra chassis stiffness by tying the towers together. It transmits the load of each strut tower during cornering via tension and compression of the strut bar, which shares the load between both towers and reduces chassis flex. 20. Zero-preload limited-slip differential
A high-performance, zero-preload limited-slip differential is employed to make the most of cornering capability and cornering exit traction. It features a concentric helical gear set that generates friction proportional to the input torque and allows continuous torque biasing and differentiation to be managed between the drive wheels. A conventional limited-slip differential uses preloaded clutch plates and springs to create a fixed amount of friction that is always present).
As torque increases from the engine, the separation forces in the gears increase to drive increased friction, maximizing the capability of individual-wheel antilock brake function during corner-entry braking, mid-corner speed and corner-exit traction. On the track, that translates into quicker lap times, by allowing the Z/28 to put down more power in the turns, wîth greater traction, greater handling precision and enhanced §teering centering. The axle ratio is 3.91.
21. Differential cooler
The Z/28's differential cooler pulled from the knowledge gained in developing the ZL1, which is unlike that found in other sports cars. It incorporates an integral heat exchanger, eliminating the need for an external pump, wiring, relays, temperature sensors and fan. This innovative system pumps overcooled transmission fluid to a heat exchanger inside the differential housing, which removes excess heat from the differential fluid, reducing temperatures by more than 100 degrees F, helping the differential maintain cool, stable performance throughout the most aggressive road course sessions.
22. Úprated lower control arm ride link 'travel limiter' bushing
This higher-durometer part offers 50-percent greater stiffness at high load than the SS, improving §teering feel and brake force deflection steer while providing more consistent performance for continuous road-course driving. Additionally, the lower control arm lateral link handling bushing is revised on all 2014 Camaros for more consistent track performance.
23. Úprated rear upper control arm bushing and lower trailing link bushings
The 'P-bracket' bushing for the rear upper control arms is redesigned wîth increased durometer and eliminated voids to improve lateral stiffness during hard cornering, as well as toe-change compliance during braking. The stiffness rate of this part is increased 400 percent, compared wîth the SS component. Similarly, 25-percent stiffer lower inner and outer trailing links bushings deliver improved lateral stiffness during hard cornering and reduced toe-change compliance during hard braking.
24. Higher-rate coil springs and smaller-diameter stabilizer bars
Engineers increased the stiffness rate of the Z/28's coil springs – the amount of energy required to compress them – by 85 percent in the front and 65 percent in the rear. The specific tuning of the springs reduces body movement, which allowed the engineers to use smaller, lighter stabilizer bars to maximize grip during hard braking, cornering and acceleration. The solid stabilizer bars are 25mm in diameter in the front and 26mm in the rear – compared to the 28mm front and 27mm solid bars used on the Camaro SS 1LE.
25. DSSV® damper technology
The Z/28 is the first high-volume production road car to employ racing-derived DSSV® or Dynamic Suspensions Spool Valve damper technology from Multimatic. The dampers rely upon a pair of self-piloted spool valves to control fluid through tuned port shapes rather than conventional deflected disc dampers. The design of the inverted-monotube front strut and aluminum-body monotube rear hydraulic dampers offers maximum response, stiffness and tuning optimized for the track, wîth the highest level of damper predictability, accuracy and repeatability. In short, they deliver optimal wheel control and vehicle control – and they provide almost double the stiffness when compared to the dampers on the Camaro SS 1LE.
26. Performance Traction Management
Performance Traction Management, or PTM, is an advanced system that integrates the chassis mode selection, Traction Control and Active Handling Systems, tuned specifically in the Z/28 for optimal road-course performance and consistency. PTM allows the driver to press the accelerator pedal to wide open at the exit of the corner and manages acceleration based on the given vehicle dynamics. Five performance levels or modes are available to accommodate a variety of driving conditions.
27. Nineteen-inch wheels and Pirelli PZero Trofeo R tires
A major contributor to the lateral performance of the Z/28 is the wheel-and-tire combination, featuring the widest front wheels/tires of any comparable sports coupe. Engineers incorporated a comparatively smaller, 19-inch package, wîth P305/30/ZR19 tires front and rear – mounted on 19x11-inch front wheels and 19x11.5-inch rear wheels – which contributed to lowering the center of gravity 33mm, for enhanced handling. The forged aluminum wheels are lighter and stiffer than comparable SS wheels, and they're used wîth Pirelli PZero Trofeo R motorsport compound tires. Designed for summer use on the street, the tires' unique compound was developed for the track and provides a large contact patch for maximum grip. They also offer a 29.5-pound weight advantage over Camaro SS tires.
28. Brembo® carbon ceramic brakes
Large, robust and track-capable Brembo® carbon ceramic matrix brakes deliver exceptional braking capability, while weighing in 9.6 kilograms under the comparable Camaro SS brakes. The brakes offer unmatched levels of brake feel, lap after lap, wîth tremendous fade resistance, and the Z/28 is expected to produce 60-0 mph stopping distances of less than 120 feet. The system includes large, 15.5 x 1.4-inch two-piece front rotors matched wîth fixed monobloc, six-piston front calipers, and 15.3 x 1.3-inch two-piece rear rotors wîth four-piston calipers. They also feature high-performance pad material wîth increased pad surface area, and electronic pad-wear sensors.
Founded in 1911 in Detroit, Chevrolet is now one of the world's largest car brands, doing business in more than 140 countries and selling more than 4.9 million cars and trucks a year. Chevrolet provides customers wîth fuel-efficient vehicles that feature spirited performance, expressive design, and high quality. More information on Chevrolet models can be found at www.chevrolet.com.Source - Chevrolet
The Chevrolet Camaro was introduced in 1967 as a compact car specifically built to provide competition for the highly popular Ford Mustang. This pony car was built atop of the same F-Body platform as the Pontiac Firebird, which had a similar production lifespan of 1967 through 2002.
During the preproduction stages of the Chevrolet Camaro, General Motors codenamed the vehicle 'Panther'. The name 'Camaro' was decided upon before production began. The word 'Camaro' in French is slang for 'friend' but in pony-car slang, the name means 'Mustang killer'.
During its production lifespan, there were four generations produced. The first generation lasted from 1967 through 1969. The second generation lasted from 1972 through 1981. The third generation lasted from 1982 through 1992. The fourth generation lasted from 1993 through 2002. The fifth generation is believed to begin production in 2007; a concept was shown at the 2006 Detroit Auto Show.
When the car was introduced in 1967, it was available in two bodystyles, a coupe and convertible. It shared many mechanics with the Chevrolet Nova and built atop a unibody chassis. The base engine was a 3.7 liter inline-six cylinder capable of producing 140 horsepower. Power was sent to the rear wheels courtesy of a Saginaw three-speed manual gearbox. A Muncie four-speed manual and a two-speed PowerGlide automatic were offered as optional equipment. Near the end of 1967, a Turbo Hydra-Matic 350 became available on the SS396. In 1969 the TH350 was offered on the Camaro as optional equipment, in place of the PowerGlide which was no longer offered. 14 inch wheels were standard.
To compete in the pony-car arena, General Motors offered a 5.7 liter eight-cylinder engine in 1967 that produced nearly 300 horsepower.
The Camaro was highly customizable, with over seventy factory and forty dealer options available. the z28 option was not mentioned in the sales literature so many buyers were unaware of its existence. Due to the lack of press about the Z28 option, only 602 examples were produced. The package included many performance enhancements such as a 4.9 liter small-block engine, front disc brakes, Muncie 4-speed gearbox, suspension improvements, 15 inch Rallye wheels, and power steering. The aesthetics of the vehicle were segregated from the other Camaro's with racing stripes being placed on the hood. The Z28 package was offered by GM specifically to comply with the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) Trans Am racing series that required an engine size of five-liters or less. Also, the vehicle must be sold to the general public.
The SS (Super Sport) package included many performance and aesthetic upgrades and was popular with more than 34400 examples created. Under the hood was a 5.7 liter eight-cylinder engine with a 6.5 liter big-block offered as optional equipment in 1968. On the grille, horn button, and gas cap were SS badging. Non-functional air-inlets adorned the front hood.
The RS (Rally Sport) package was basically a cosmetic upgrade. The headlights were hidden, the taillights received minor alterations, and the exterior rocker trim was revised. RS badging could be seen throughout the vehicle. This was the most popular option ordered in 1967 with over 64840 examples produced.
The RS and SS packages could be ordered together, creating the RS/SS Camaro. The combination included both the aesthetics of the RS and the performance of the SS. A Camaro RS/SS convertible with a 6.5 liter engine paced the Indianapolis 500 race in 1967.
With over 220900 examples produced in 1967, the Camaro proved to General Motors that the public was starved for small, performance, pony-cars.
In 1968 the Camaro received minor aesthetic and mechanical improvements. Side market lights were added, the grille became more pointed, and the taillights were now segregated. The side vent windows were removed. Performance was improved slightly by the staggering of the shock absorbers. On some of the models, the single-leafs were replaced by multi-leaf springs.
Buyers became aware of the Z28 package in 1968 and ordered nearly 7200 examples. The RS continued to be the most popular option with 40977 examples produced. The SS accounted for 27884 of the 235147 total Camaro's produced in 1968.
For 1969 the Camaro became safer and faster. General Motors mandated that the Camaro could not come from the factory with engines larger than 6.6 liters. To bypass this rule dealerships such as Yenko Chevrolet, Dana Chevrolet, and Nickey Chevrolet offered the Camaro with the 7 liter, big-block, L-27 corvette engine producing 425 horsepower. These performance options became so popular that in 1969 Chevrolet began offering two Central Office Production Orders (COPO) options, numbers 9560 and 9561. The COPO 9561 option included the L-72 Corvette engine. In total, there were 1015 Camaros equipped with the L-72 Corvette engine.
The COPO 9560 option included a 7-liter, big-block, ZL-1 engine. The engine was constructed of aluminum to help reduce the overall weight. The engine was reported to have produced around 430 gross horsepower but in reality it was closer to 550. With only 69 examples produced it is one of the rarest and fastest of all Chevrolet Camaros.
Most of the 1969 Chevrolet Camaro mechanics remained unchanged. The aesthetics was a different story. The grille was redesigned and the headlights now sat farther back adding to the aggressive features of the car. Newly reshaped door, rear quarter panel, and rear valence gave the 1969 Camaro a smooth, low, and wide stance. The production of the 1969 Camaro, which continued into December of 1969, was the final year for the first generation Camaro.
The second generation Camaro began production near the middle of 1970. The body had been redesigned and the suspension was greatly improved. The rest of the mechanics remained mostly unchanged from the prior years. The biggest change was the base engine, which was now a 4.1 liter inline-six capable of producing 155 horsepower. There was no convertible option offered, only a 2+2 coupe configuration.
The big-block eight-cylinder had been bored to 402 cubic-inches but still retained its 396 badging. The Rally Sport, Super Sport, and Z28 packages were still available. The Z28 now featured a 5.7 liter engine that produced 360 horsepower.
1972 was not a good year for the Camaro. For 174 days production ceased at GM's assembly plant in Ohio due to a UAW strike. This resulted in 1100 Camaro's failing to meet 1973 Federal bumper safety standards. In total, only 68,656 examples were production. Less than a thousand were the SS package so General Motors decided to no longer offer the package after 1972. This meant the big-block 396 cubic-inch engine was no longer offered.
The Camaro, much like the rest of the industry, had to adapt to new government and insurance safety and emission regulations. This meant new safety features like larger bumpers needed to be affixed to the car that could protect the vehicle and its occupants at certain speeds. Engines were detuned to comply with safety and emission concerns. The cars became safer but their performance was seriously crippled. This was true for the Camaro in 1973 when its highest producing engine was a 350 cubic-inch V-8 that produced 245 horsepower.
New for 1973 was an LT option which included impact-absorbing bumpers. The Camaro grew in size in 1974 due to a forward sloping grille and new aluminum bumpers. Rectangular bumpers replaced the round taillight designs. Sales of the Z28 package continued to decline so the decision was made to discontinue the option after 1974.
Horsepower was measured in NET rather than gross rating beginning in 1975. This meant that the reported horsepower was much lower than in prior years. The 350 cubic-inch V8 was now rated at about 155 horsepower.
In 1977 the Z28 was re-introduced in an effort to revitalize the muscle-car persona of the Camaro. The base Camaro's were outfitted with air-conditioning and an automatic transmission. A Borg-Warner Super T-10 four-speed manual gearbox could be ordered as optional equipment.
1978 marked the first year for the T-top option on a Camaro. The Camaro was given larger taillights and new bumpers.
As vehicles became safer, they became slower. The public shifted from wanting performance to luxury. Oil embargos and rising fuel costs had made the engines smaller but more fuel efficient. For 1979 the LT package was replaced with a luxurious Berlinetta that included special wheels, paint, emblems, and interior.
1979 was a very strong year for Camaro sales with 282,571 examples being sold.
1980 and 1981 saw very few changes. The hood scope on the Z-28 was revised to help siphon air to the engine.
In 1981 sales were down considerable to just over 126,000. This would be the final year for the second generation Camaro.
In 1982 General Motors introduced the third generation of the Camaro. The vehicle was stylish and versatile, earning the coveted Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year. Both aesthetically and mechanically, the vehicle was improved. The suspension was upgraded making it more capable in the corners and at speed.
This was the first year the Camaro was equipped with a factory fuel-injected engine. A four-speed automatic gearbox replaced the three-speed unit. A five-speed manual gearbox was also available. Due to rising concerns of oil shortage, a four-cylinder engine was offered for part of 1982.
6000 examples of the Z28 Camaro were sold to commemorate the return of the pony-car to the Indianapolis 500. The special-edition vehicles were painted in two-tone silver and blue paint with orange pin-striping.
To honor the International Race of Champions, Chevrolet introduced the IROC-Z in 1985. The package included an improved suspension, decal package, and a 305 cubic-inch L98 Tuned Port Injection system borrowed from the Corvette. The IROC-Z was featured on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best List for 1985.
The L69 small-block engine was offered from 1983 through 1986. The LB9 small-block was introduced in 1985; the L98 small-block was introduced in 1987; the LO3 was introduced in 1988. The LB9, L98, and LO3 stayed in production until 1992.
1992 was the final year for the third generation Camaro. 1993 marked the beginning of the fourth generation which persisted until 2002.
New technology and material made the fourth generation greatly improved over the prior years. Weight was reduced with the use of plastic body panels sitting atop a steel space frame. Performance was increased thanks in part to a better suspension system. In 1993 Chevrolet offered the LT1 eight-cylinder engine, which had been in production for a year on the Corvette, on the Camaro. A six-speed manual gearbox was offered with the LT1 engine.
The Camaro returned to the Indianapolis 500 as the honorary pace car in 1993. To commemorate this historic accomplishment, Chevrolet offered a limited quantity of special edition Camaro's, painted in a black and white color scheme.
The design and mechanics remained mostly unchanged over the next few years. Minor revisions were made to comply with newly introduced emission standards. Mechanical changes were made to correct problems that had been found throughout the years.
In 1996 the RS package and the SS package were re-introduced. The RS was an appearance option for the six-cylinder Camaro's while the SS was both an appearance and performance package for the eight-cylinder cars.
1997 marked the 30th anniversary of the Camaro. A 30th Anniversary Package was offered to honor this accomplishment. The vehicles were painted white with orange stripes. 100 of the Anniversary Camaros were given the LT4 engine with 330 horsepower; a thirty-eight thousand dollar price tag accompanied the vehicle.
The interior of the Camaro was modernized in 1997 and again in 1998, although the 1998 improvements were minor in comparison to what transpired the prior year.
The body design was drastically changed in 1998, mainly in the front. Round headlights replaced the square design. The headlights were flush, inline with the rest of the body. A new grille and bumper were used, both positioned a little differently to mimic the headlight changes. A new powerful, lightweight, all-aluminum LS1 power-plant retired the LT1 unit. The OHV LS1 was borrowed from the Corvette and slightly detuned to produce just over 300 horsepower. To handle this extra power, the disc brakes were enlarged and the suspension was upgraded.
Total production for 1998 was 48490. This was disappointing for General Motors, especially with the newly revised body and powerful options. The lowest production year for the Camaro occurred in 2001 with just over 29000 examples being produced. This was due to low sales and production ceasing early to begin work on the 35th Anniversary 2002 cars.
2002 marked the final year for production of the fifth generation Camaro. The styling and mechanics were unmodified, carrying the same design from 1999.
A special 35th Anniversary Edition was offered and could be ordered on all trim levels and packages. The 35th Anniversary SS Camaro could only be ordered as a convertible or with T-Tops. Around 3000 examples of the 35th Anniversary Edition were created. Total production for the year was just over 42,000.
On August 27th, 2002 production ceased. The Camaro had accomplished its goal, to provide competition for the Ford Mustang and other compact, low-priced, sports cars. Outfitted with large, Corvette engines, matted to effective gearboxes and given great suspension and brakes, the Camaro was truly a performance machine that was capable and fun to drive. It was fairly practical with room for more than two passengers. It was economical with sticker-prices in the range that many could afford. The production of the Camaro has ceased, but its future has not yet been written. Expect to see this legendary vehicle on the roadways in the near future.